West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020

Practicing with West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Book Solutions and West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020 alongside detailed explanations can lead to a deeper understanding of the subject.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020


1. Write the correct answer from the given alternatives: 1×14=14

Question 1.
The process by which, soil and rock layers move down along the slope of highlands by gravity is called:
a. Weathering
b. Gradation process
c. Endogenic processes
d. Mass wasting process
d. Mass wasting process

West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020

Question 2.
In pediplain, low lying hills of hard rocks remain as residual landform is called :
a. Yardang
b. Zeugen
c. Sand dunes
d. Inselberg
d. Inselberg

Question 3.
“Horse Latitude” is located at :
a. Equatorial low pressure belt
b. Sub-tropical high pressure belt
c. Sub-polar low pressure belt
d. Polar high pressure belt
b. Sub-tropical high pressure belt

Question 4.
Diurnal range of temperature is maximum in :
a. Equatorial climatic region
b. Hot desert climatic region
c. Tropical Monsoon climatic region
d. Mediterranean climatic region
b. Hot desert climatic region

Question 5.
The formation of ocean currents depend on :
a. Prevailing winds
b. Earth’s revolution
c. Sand banks
d. All of them are applicable
a. Prevailing winds

West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020

Question 6.
The time difference between high and low tides at a place is nearly :
a. more than two hours
b. more than six hours
c. more than four hours
d. more than eight hours
b. more than six hours

Question 7.
Carbon particles emitted by vehicles are controlled by use of :
a. Cyclone Separators
b. Electrostatic Precipitator
c. Scrubber
d. Coated Alumina
c. Scrubber

Question 8.
Parallel of latitude, passing through the middle of India is :
a. Equator
b. Tropic of Capricorn
c. Prime Meridian
d. Tropic of Cancer
d. Tropic of Cancer

Question 9.
The lake located, in between the deltas of Godavari and Krishna rivers is :
a. Kolleru
b. Pulicat
c. Chilka
d. Vembanad
a. Kolleru

Question 10.
The most extensive method of irrigation, practiced in India is :
a. Wells and tube wells
b. Tanks
c. Canals
d. Sprinkler
a. Wells and tube wells

West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020

Question 11.
Western disturbances occur in India during :
a. Summer season
b. Autumn season
c. Rainy season
d. Winter season
d. Winter season

Question 12.
Salty sea breeze is needed for :
a. Sugar cultivation
b. Tea cultivation
c. Jute cultivation
d. Coffee cultivation
a. Sugar cultivation

Question 13.
Petro-chemical industrial centre of West Bengal is located at :
a. Junput
b. Kolkata
c. Sankarpur
d. Haldia
d. Haldia

Question 14.
The colour used for drawing of contour lines in topographical map is :
a. Brown
b. Black
c. Red
d. Blue
a. Brown

West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020


1. If the statement is true, write ‘T’ and if false, write ‘F’ against the following answer any six: 1×6=6

1. The confluence of Alakananda and Bhagirathi rivers is at Devprayag.
Answer: True

2. Mistral is a warm local wind which blows over Rhone valley in France.
Answer: False

3. Floods occur in India in the years of El-Nino.
Answer: False

4. The position of sun, moon and earth along a straight line is known as syzygy.
Answer: True

5. Papers may be manufactured by recycling newspapers as raw material.
Answer: True

6. The soil composed of pebbles, sands and silts, found along the foothills of Siwalik is called bet.
Answer: False

7. For analysis of satellite imageries, use of computer is mandatory.
Answer: True

West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020

2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words answer any six: 1×6=6

1. The process of modifying landforms by combined action of erosion and weathering is called ……..
Answer: Gradation

2. Oases are formed by ………………… action of wind.
Answer: Erosional/Deflational/Blouring

3. With the increase of air pressure gradient, wind velocity ………..
Answer: Increases

4. The cold ocean water from polar region flows as ………………… current towards equator.
Answer: Cold

5 The longest national highway of India is NH …………..
Answer: 44

6. Indian Space Research Centre is situated at …………..
Answer: Thiruvananthapuram

7. In short, electronic waste is known as ………….. waste.
Answer: e

West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020

3. Answer in one or two words answer any six: 1×6=6

1. Name the largest valley glacier of the world.
2 Where in the atmosphere over the earth surface ozone hole was first discovered?
3 Name the southern-most mountain pass of Western Ghats.
4 What is the local name of the lagoons in Kerala coast?
5 Name the highest waterfall of India.
6 In which city of India underground rail first started its journey?
7 Which is the most populous state of India?
8 In what form the satellite imagery is produced?
1. Lambert glacier in Antarctica.
2. Antarctica
3. Pal ghat (Palakkad gap)
4. Kayal
5. Kunchikal waterfalls of karnataka
6. Kolkata
7. Uttar Pradesh
8. Digital form

4. Match the Left Column with the Right Column:1×4=4

1. Ratna a. Pine
2. Coniferous forest b. Murmagaon
3. Railway coach manufacturing centre c. High-yielding variety rice seed
4. Iron ore exporting port d. Perambur

1-c, 2-a , 3-d, 4 -b


3. Answer the inflowing in brief (Alternatives should be noted): 2×6=12

Question 1.
What is Plunge Pool?
OR Define Loess.
The depression or hole created at the foot of a waterfall due to falling or plunging of water along with rock fragments with high velocity, is known as a plunge pool.
West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020 1
Plains formed by deposition of fine sand particles carried by wind far away from the place where they belong, are called loess or loess plains. Eg-A loess plain has been formed along the valley of river Hwang Ho in China, due to deposition of sand blows away from the gobi desert.
West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020 2

Question 2.
What is relative humidity?
OR, What do you mean by Perigean tide?
The ratio of the amount of water vapour present in the air mass at a given temperature of a place, to the maximum quantity of water vapour that the air can hold at that particular temperature, is known as relative humidity. It is expressed as a percentage.

Relative humidity
\(=\frac{\text { Actual amount of water vapour present in air }}{\text { Maximum amount of water vapour the air can hold at that temperature }} \times 100\)
\(\text { Relative humidity }=\frac{\text { Absolute humidity }}{\text { Humidity capacity }} \times 100\)
A perigean tide occurs when the moon comes closest to the earth (on a new moon or full moon day) while revolving around the earth on its orbit. The strongest perigean tide occurs three or four times a year when a perigee (nearest position of the moon to the earth) coincides with a spring tide (When the sun, the moon and the earth are nearly aligned in every two weeks).

Question 3.
What is a landfill in waste management?
Define municipal wastes.
The method of discarding wastes in approved grounds, filling up the huge holes dug to bury the wastes callected, is called land-filling. Land-filling is the most common method of waste disposal, where the waste is buried underground. But this method is not much in use in modern days, as this requires a large vacant land and produces strong methane and other gases, and cause contamination problems.
The wastes generated in the urban areas, or municipal areas. are known as municipal wastes. These include trash of garbage from households, schools, offices, markets, restaurants and other public places; obsolute computers, mobiles and other electronic goods; furniture and old fashioned clothes etc.

Question 4.
Mention two characteristic features of desert vegetation in India.
What do you mean by “Dun”?
Characteristics of desert vegetation in India are :

  • It is found in Rajasthan, Kachch and Kthiawar Peninsular region of gujarat and the rain shadow area of Decan Plateau.
  • The vegetation is very sparsely spread.
  • The leaves of the plants are reduced to thorns due to lack of water. The roots are very long to absorb underground water. The stems are flashy and have a waxy coating over them.

The valleys lying in the siwalik range are called ‘Duns’ or ‘Doons’. The Siwalik range has been formed much later than the Himadri and Himachal Himalayas. During the formation of the siwalk, the rivers that were flowing ran the higher Himalyan ranges got interupted and blocked, thus forming lakes, and depositing pebbles, sand, silt etc. Later the rivers eroded and made their ways through the Siwalik range as well. Thus, the waters of the lakes were removed. The depositions left back formed the ‘doons’

Question 5.
Define ancillary industry.
Name the two terminal centres of the longest inland waterways in India.
The industries which supply their finished products as raw materials for some other industries or support the growth of other industries are called basic industries, and the industries which receive these raw materials or are supported by these basic industries, are called ancillary industries. Eg-Ancillary industries for the automobile industry are-tyre industry battery industry, glass industry etc.
The longest inland waterway of india (also called National Waterway 1) lies along the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghl river system. It is 1,620 km long, lying between Prayagraj in Allahabad in the north to Haldia in West Bengal (Sagar) in the south.

Question 6.
What do you mean by sensor?
State two uses of topographical maps.
A sensor is a specialised camera that is installed in a satellite in order to take photographs of the earth. It can be of two types. An active sensor uses its own energy for illumination and helps the satellite to capture images at night. A passive sensor can help the satellite to capture images only when the sun is illuminating the earth.
The uses of topographical maps are :

  • It helps to understand and study the physical characteristics of the region.
  • It helps to understand and analyse the different cultural features (roads, settlements, etc.) of the same area with respect to the physical features present there.
  • It helps to analyse the relation between man and nature, and helps to plan for economic development.


Give brief explanatory answer (Alternatives should be noted):-

Question 1.
Discuss in brief about three processes of river transportational activity.
Mention the relationship between Jet stream and Indian Monsoon system.
The river transports its load by the following processes:

  • Traction: The heavier and large rock fragments are forced to flow down along the river water by rolling on the floor of the river channel due to gravity.
  • Saltation: The comparatively smaller fragments of rocks are moved downstream by jumping over the floor of the river channel along with the water continuously.
  • Suspension: The fine particles of the river’s load remain suspended in the river due to buoyancy of water, while they are carried downstream.
  • Solution: The soluble particles are dissolved in the river water and moved downstream.

Jet stream is a thin stream of speedy winds (350-450 km/hr) that blow from west to east from the winter till March-April between the Troposphere and the Stratosphere. These winds play an important role in the Indian monsoon system. These winds influence the onset and retreat of the monsoons in India, by seasonal shifting and creation of low presure and high presure calls respectively.

Question 2.
Classify wastes according to nature along with examples.
State three necessities of waste management.
The different types of wastes are :

  • Solid wastes: Solid wastes are any type of garbage or rubbish generated at home or outside. Eg-Food wastes newspaper, broken household or office articles, etc.
  • Liquid wastes: Liquid wastes include wash waters from homes, cleaning liquids used in industries, waste waters or liquids from industries, etc. Sometimes, solid wastes are converted to liquids before discarding.
  • Gaseous wastes: Gaseous wastes include CO2, SO2, N2O NH3 etc. produced as a result of manufacturing activities in industries comsumption of differnent products and other biological processes.
  • Toxic wastes : Toxic wastes are harmful and hazardous poisonous wastes that threaten public health and environment. Eg-pesticides, mercury, containing equipments, lamps, batteries, etc.
  • Non-toxic wastes: These wastes are not poisonous as such and do not pose a serious problem to the environment. They can be decomposed easily. Eg-domestic wastes, food left-overs, paper, glass, etc.

The necessities of proper waste management system are-

  • To control different types of pollution.
  • To control the spread of infectious diseases.
  • To conserve environmental resources like forests, minerals, water etc.
  • To reduce the amount of wastes generated everyday.
  • To recycle hazardous wastes for further production of useful items.

Question 3.
Discuss three advantages each of roadways and railways in India.
State the merits of agricultural revolution as experienced in the States of Punjab and Haryana.
The advantages of roadways in India are as follows :

  • The light weight and less bulky commodity can be easily transported from one corner of the country to the other.
  • A variety of vehicles, eg-buses, trucks, cycles, auto rickshaws, vans, etc. can use the same road and carry different types of commodities and number of passengers and render door-to-door services as well.
  • This is the easiest mode of transport for moving raw materials to factories and finished products to markets. Hence, a large percentage of economic development of the country depends upon the roadways.

The advantages of railways in India are as follows :

  • Railways transport a huge quantity of goods and passengers at a high speed and at a low cost throughout the country.
  • Railways carry seeds, fertilizers, agricultural equipments to the fields and the produced crops to the markets. Railways also transport minerals, power resources, equipments etc. to the industries and their finished products to the markets. Thus railways help to bring about agricultural and industrial development in India.
  • Railways help in defence of the country by transporting soldiers, ration, war equipments and other necessary things to the border regions.

The agricultural revolution experienced in the States of Punjab and Haryana is popularly known as the Green Revolution. The merits of Green Revolution are-

  • Remarkable increase on production of foodcrops, especially wheat.
  • Extension of agricultural land.
  • Modernisation and mechanisation of agriculture.
  • Reduction of past attacks due to use of better quality of insecticides and pesticides.
  • Employment and improvement in the economic condition of the farmers, and thus a rise in their standard of living.
  • Reduction in import of foodgrains and huge increase in the export of the same.

Question 4.
Give an account of different types of scales in tabular form as used “topographical maps”.
Distinguish between Geostationary and Sun-Synchronous satellites.
The different types of scales used in topographical maps areas follows :
West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020 3

Geostationary Satellites
i. The artificial satellites that orbit the earth from west to east in circular orbits in the same time as that of earth’s rotation ( 24 hours), are called geostationary satellites. i. The sun-synchronous satellites are those which are installed on a geocentric orbit that combines altitude and inclination in such a way, that the satellite passes over any given point of the planets surface at the same local solar time.
ii. They are installed at a height of of 36,000 km approximately, above the equator. ii. They are installed at 700-800km above the land surface and orbit the earth in circular or elliptical paths from the north polar to south polar regions.
eg : GOES-E, GOES-W, etc. iii. eg : IRS, LANDSAT, etc.


(Sketches are not essential for Sightless Candidates)

1. Answer any two questions from the following :

Question 1.
Describe with sketches three landforms carved out by glacial erosion.
The landforms curved out by glacial erosion are as follows:

i. Cirque: At the source of the glacier, the mountain wall is heavily eroded by the process of plucking and abrasion. This it looks like a scooped out huge arm chair. This is known as a cirque or a corrie. Acrque may be filled with glacier melt water and may form a cirque lake or a corrie lake.

West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020 4

ii. Arete: In a show-covered mountains region, two or more glaciers may originate from different slopes of the same mountain. Thus, two or more cirques may be formed or the same mountain adjecent to each other. The steep and sharp wall that separates two adjecent cirques, is known as the arete.

West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020

iii. Pyramidal peak: If a mountain has three or more aretes, it takes the structure of a pyramid, and thus is called the pyramidal peak. The tip of such a peak becomes very sharp and pointed, and is called a horn.

iv. U-shaped valley : While the glacier flows down, the intensity of side erosion is same as that of vertical or down erosion by the processes of plucking and abrasion. Hence the valley developed looks like the letter ‘U’. Thus they are called U-shaped valley.
West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020 5
v. Hanging valley : In a glaciated region, the main or trunk glacier cames a greater volume of ice than the tributary glaciers. Thus the main glacier has more erosive power than the smaller tributary glaciers. Hence, the main glacier forms deper valleys and the tributary glaciers form comparatively less deeper valleys. These are not visible as long as the ice cover reviews found to be hanging over the huge deep valleys. Such valleys are called hanging valley.

Question 2.
Give an account of atmospheric layers of troposphere and stratosphere.

  • The lowest layer of the atmosphere, lying closest to the earth is known as Troposphere.
  • It extends upto 18km near the equator and 18km near the poles.
  • Temperature in this layer decreases by this is known as Lapse Rate.
  • About three-fourths of the total mass of the atmosphere is concentrated in this layer.
  • All the weather phenomena, like wind, rainfall, storm, etc, occur in this layer.
  • The upper limit of the Troposphere is known as the Tropopouse.


  • Stratosphere is the second layer of the atmosphere that lies above the Troposphere.
  • It spreads upto 50km above the earth’s surface.
  • Temperature goes on increasing in this layer at the rate of 4 for every 50km.
  • A huge concentration of ozone gas is found in this layer between 20-40 km. This is also known as the Ozonosphere.
  • There is very less atmospheric disturbances here. A thin layer of cirrus clouds may form at the lower layers of the stratosphere.
  • Jet planes fly through this layer due to less friction due to lack of air.
  • The upper limit of the stratosphere is known as stratopause.

West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020

Question 3.
Mention the location of Mediterranean climatic region and discuss its major climatic characteristics.
Mediteranean climate is found between 30°c – 40°c latitudes in both Northern and Southern hemispheres.

  • Europe: Portugal, spain, Italy, Greece
  • Aisa: Western Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Israel.
  • Africa: Egypt, Morocco, Northern Algeria, Cape town.
  • North America: Southern California.
  • South America: Chile
  • Oceania: Southern and south-western coast of Australia.

Characteristics of Mediterranean climate

  • Temperature remains moderate throughout the year.
  • Average summer temperature lies between 14°c 22°c
  • Average winter temperature lies between 10°c -14°c
  • Summers are dry and the sky remains clear during this season.
  • Most of the rainfall occurs during winter.
  • Average annual rainfall is 35-75cm

Question 4.
Discuss the influences of ocean currents on global climate.
The influences of ocean currents on global climate are :
i. Control on temperature: The warm currents move towards the polar regions from the equatorial region and the cold currents flow towards the equatorial region from the polar regions. This helps in maintaining a balance between temperature of various regions due to exchange of heat.

ii. Rainfall and snowfall: The regions along which warm currents flow experience heavy rainfall. The regions along which cold currents flow, are more prone to snowfall.

iii. El Nino and La Nina: During El Nino, a warm current flows from the north towards the coast of Peru and Ecuador in South America. This causes heavy rainfall in those regions. However, India and Australia may face severe draughts. During La Nina opposite climatic conditions prevail. Australia experiences heavy rainfall, India experiences moderate rainfall and Peru and Ecuador experience draught.

2. Answer any two question from the following :

Question 1.
Explain the major factors controlling the climate of India.
The major factors that control the climate of India are :
i. Latitude: India lies between latitudes. The tropic of cancer runs through the middle of the country dividing the land into two distinct temperature zones. The southern part belongs to the Torrid Zone, While the northern part belongs to the Temperature Zone.

ii. Relief: Temperature is inversely proportionate to altitude. High relief regions have cooler climate compared to lower regions. Eg : some regions of Deccan plateau enjoy cool summers due to altitude, inspite of being nearer to the equator than the northern plains. The coastal regions enjoy an equable climate throughout the year.

iii. The Himalayas: The lofty Himalayas act as a barrier to the severely cold polar winds that come from the north, thus saving the country from chilling winters. It also prevents the monsoon winds from escaping northwards, thus ensuring monsoon rainfall in India.

iv. Distance from the sea: India has a very long coastline. The regions along the coastline enjoy moderate or maritime climate throughout the year due to the influence of the sea. Regions lying far from the sea experience extreme or continental climate with harsh summers and winters.

v. Winds: India lies under the prevailing north-eastern trade winds. Due to inequal heating of land and sea in different seasons, section of the wind blow seeasonally from oposite directions. These are called monsoon winds, They have a remarkable impact on the Indian climate and economy.

vi. Western disturbances: In winter, some cyclonic winds from the Mediteranean region, called western disturbances, enter India, causing a little rainfall and snowfall in the north.

vii. Jet Stream: This is a thin stream of speedy winds (350-450km/hr) blowing from west to east between the Troposphere and Stratosphere. These winds influence the onset and retreat of monsoons in India.

viii. El Nino and La Nina: During El Nino, India may experience rise in

West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020

Question 2.
Give an account of favourable physical conditions required for cultivation of tea in India.
The favourable physical conditions required for the cultivation of tea in india are :

  • Temperature: Tea can grow in temperatures between 10°c – 35°c. The best condition is 25°c  and growth is retarded below an average of 18°c.
  • Rainfall: Tea requires 150-200 cm of annual rainfall well distributed throughout the year, with no long spells of dry season.
  • Humidity: High humidity, heavy dews and morning fog favour rapid development of young leaves.
  • Frost: Widespread winter frost is harmful for the growth of tea.
  • Shade: Tea is a shade-loving plant. Hence big trees are planted in between tea plants to provide light and shade.
  • Relief: Tea plants cannot tolerate stagnant of water at the base. Hence mountain slopes and undulating highlands are preferred for cultivation of tea.
  • Soil: Well-drained sandy loam with porous sub-soil is favourable for tea. Virgin forest soils with good amout of iron and humus are also suitable.

Question 3.
Explain why cotton textile industry is extensively developed in Western India.
The factors responsible for the extensive development of cotton textile industry in western india are :

  • Availability of raw cotton from the black soil region of Western and Central India.
  • Hot humid weather of western India helps in the growth of cotton and making of threads.
  • Presence of ports at Mumbai, Kandla, Surat etc. helps in international trade.
  • Availability of hydel power from Ukai, Veera, etc. thermal power from Dhubran, and atomic power from Kakrapara, Tarapore, etc.
  • Good network of railways and roadways cannecting all important centres of the country.
  • Availability of capital from business communitees residing in the western part of India.
  • Ample labour at cheap rates.
  • High demand of cotton products in the local and foreign markets.

Question 4.
Discuss the major problems of Urbanization in India.
The major problems of urbanisation in India are :

  • Unplanned growth of urban areas: Rapid concentration of population in urban areas lead to unplanned and nonsystematic growth of towns and cities,
  • Accomodation: The rapidly growing population is difficult to house in the already existing urban areas, Hence, growth of slums and downtrodden areas occurs in the fringes of towns and cities.
  • Availability of water: The amount of water available is not sufficient for the rapidly growing population. Hence scarcity of water occurs.
  • Unemployment: A huge section of rural population comes to urban areas in search of work. But all of them do not get employment. Hence, the total percentage of unemployed population in the urban areas increases.
  • Sewage and garbage disposal: The huge volume of disposable solid and liquid wastes generated by the excess population is difficult to handle with the present sewage and waste management systems. Thus waste dumping, water lagging, sewage overflow, etc. are common.

West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020


Locate the following with appropriate symbols and names on the given outline map of India. Attach the map with your answer paper: 1×10=10

1. Aravalli mountain.
2. River Narmada.
3. Highest rainfall receiving centre in north-east India.
4. Forest Research Institute of India.
5. A region of saline soil in eastern India.
6. A coffee producing region.
7. Rurh of India.
8. India’s largest IT industrial centre.
9. A natural port of Western India.
10. Largest megacity of Northern India.
[For Sightless Candidates Only]
West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2020 7

6. Answer any ten of the following questions: 1×10=10

1. Name the rift valley lying between Vindhya and Satpura range.
2. Mention the name of the largest river island of India.
3. Name a coral island of India.
4. In which state of India, south-west monsoon wind strikes first?
5. Mention the name of state where mountain soils are found.
6. Which state of India ranks first in production of paddy?
7. Name one rabi crop produced in India.
8. Where in West Bengal rail engine manufacturing centre is located?
9. Name a mountain pass of Eastern Himalaya.
10. By which name, the old alluvial soil of Ganga Plain is known?
11. Name the state of India, having least population density.
12. Mention the name of the biggest port of Eastern India.
13. Which state of India ranks first in Coffee Production?
14. Name one natural port on the Eastern Coast of India.
1. Aravalli mountain
2. River Normoda
3. Highest rainfall receiving centre in morth-east India
4. Forest research institute of India
5. A region of saline soil in eastern India.
6. A coffee producing region.
7. Rurh of India
8. India’s largest IT industrial centre.
9. A natural port of western India.
10. Largest mega city of Northern India.
[For sightless candidates only]
1. Narmoda river valley.
2 Majuli island on river Brahamaputra, Assam.
3. Lakshadweep islands.
4. Kerala
5. Sikkim, Jammu and Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam.
6. West Bengal.
7. Wheat, barley, peas, gram, mustard, etc.
8. Chittaranjan
9. Nathula Pass, Bumla Pass
10. Bhangar
11. Arunachal Pradesh.
12. Chennai port
13. Karnataka
14. Kolkata port.

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