WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Detailed explanations in West Bengal Board Class 9 Geography Book Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India offer valuable context and analysis.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Chapter 7 Question Answer – Resources of India

Very Short Questions and Answers : (1 mark for each question)

Question 1.
What is the resource which is found in only one place in the world known as?
Invaluable Resource/Explicit resource

Question 2.
Give an example of fossil fuel.

Question 3.
Which conventional energy is known as white coal?
Hydroelectric power.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 4.
Which type of coal can be regarded as the best quality?

Question 5.
Which element is most abundant in mineral oil?

Question 6.
Which process is more commonly used to produce nuclear power?
Nuclear fission.

Question 7.
Which type of energy can prevent pollution?
Alternative energy.

Question 8.
What type of energy can be generated from Durgaduani region of Sundarbans?
Tidal energy.

Question 9.
What is the other name for petroleum?

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 10.
The anticlinal form of a fold where mineral oil gets accumulated is known as-

Question 11.
What type of coal is usually used for industrial purpose?

Question 12.
Name a nuclear power station in South India.

Question 13.
What is the concept of inherent or potential quality of a neutral stuff known as?
Resource Perception.

Question 14.
Where does India stand in the production of wind energy?
Fifth in the world.

Question 15.
Which region in India produces maximum amount of mineral oil?
Western India.

Question 16.
Where is the potential mineral oil reserve in West Bengal?
Sundarban area.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 17.
What is ‘Sagar Samrat’?
Floating ship used for drawing up mineral oil.

Question 18.
Give an example of a renewable resource
Sunlight / Solar power.

Question 19.
What are the two by products of coal?
Bitumen, coal tar.

Question 20.
What percent of mineral oil is imported in India?
80 percent.

Question 21.
What is full form of OIL?
Oil India Limited.

Question 22.
What are those matter which do not have any utility or function known as?
Neutral stuff.

Question 23.
What is capability of fulfilling the gap of resource called?

Question 24.
What are the resources which are derived from nature called?
Natural resource.

Question 25.
What are the resources derived from the biological world called?
Biotic or Biological resources.

Question 26.
What are the resources which cannot be touched are known as?
Intangible resource

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 27.
What is India’s rank in the world in terms of export of iron ore?

Question 28.
What type of resource involves man’s knowledge, intellect and technical skill?
Cultural resource.

Question 29.
What type of resources are under the control of a country?
National resources.

Question 30.
What type of fuel does not pollute nature?
Green fuel

Question 31.
How many type of barriers are there for creating resources?

Question 32.
When was the National Thermal Power Corporation formed?

Question 33.
Under what type of resources can resources of Antarctica be categorised?
International resource.

Question 34.
What is India’s world rank in terms of population?

Question 35.
In which country do majority of the productive people like?

Question 36.
How can iron ore be classified on the basis of purity of the ore?
Four types.

Question 37.
What is the percent of liquite in terms of all the types of coal produced in India?
15 percent.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 38.
Which type of coal has excessive amount of carbon content?

Question 39.
What is the lead of pencil made of?

Question 40.
Which geological age does the coal found in India belong to?
Gondwana age.

Question 41.
Which category does most of the Gondwana coal in India belongs to?
Bituminous coal.

Question 42.
What is the rank of West Bengal in the production of coal?

Question 43.
Which is the deepest oil field in India?

Question 44.
Which type of energy production is being stressed upon nowadays in India?
Alternative energy.

Question 45.
Name a nuclear power station which is under construction in Maharashtra

Question 46.
Into how many types can mineral oil be classified on the basis of variation in chemical composition?
Three types.

Question 47.
What is the percentage of nuclear power in terms of total world production of electricity?
15 percent.

Question 48.
How much electricity is produced form one pound of uranium?
About 12,000 MW.

Short Questions and Answers : (2 marks for each question)

Question 1.
What is neutral stuff?
The materials which are available in nature and are of no use are called neutral stuff. For example, a piece of rocky barren land.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 2.
What are the two main features of a resource?
The two main features of resources are-

  • Utility: To fill in the gap of demand for resource.
  • Functionality: It meets the paucity of supply of resources of mankind by providing its utility.

For example, thermal power is derived from burning of fossil fuel and this is its utility. When this thermal power becomes beneficial to mankind by way of many facilitating activities, this is its functionality.

Question 3.
What are natural resources?
The resources which are easily available from nature are called natural resources for example, sunlight, wind, fertile soil along river banks etc.

Question 4.
What are non-renewable or exhaustible resources?
The resources which are available in nature in limited quantities and cannot be replaced or replenished after being utilised are called non-renewable or exhaustible resources. For example, coal, mineral oil etc.

Question 5.
What are renewable or inexhaustible resources?
The resources which are easily available in nature and can be used over and over again without they being depleted, are called renewable or inexhaustible resources. For example, sunlight, wind, sea-waves etc.

Question 6.
What is regional resource?
The resource which are available in and restricted to any particular region is called regional resource. For example, coal, iron ore, gold etc.

Question 7.
What is biotic resource?
The resource which are obtained from the biological (flora and fauna) world is called biotic resource. For example, wood, milk, meat etc.

Question 8.
What is intangible resource?
The resource which cannot be touched is called intangible resource. This type of resource can be obtained from the cultural environment of mankind. For example, education, skill etc.

Question 9.
What is potential resource?
The resource which is available in nature and also has utility and functionality, but cannot be exploited and used due to inaccessibility of the places where it is found is, called potential resource. For example, the vast iron covered land in Antarctica.

Question 10.
What is resource perception?
The perception by mankind of the function, utility and benefit derived out of any matter and preliminary investigation of it is called resource perception. This perception varies on the basis of technological skill, requirement or demand, environmental issue or concept and abundance of such matter. For example, paper can be derived from sugarcane bagasse.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 11.
What is conservation of resource?
The term conservation means to preserve a certain thing for a specific purpose. When a resource is utilised in a limited way scientifically, reducing its over-exploitation and wastage and thereby preserving that particular resource, is called conservation of resource. The concept of reducing (the exploitation and use), re-using and recycling is applied here.

Question 12.
What are mineral resources?
The resources which are derived from digging or drilling of the earth’s surface are called mineral resources. For example, coal, mineral oil or petroleum etc. These resources have specific physical and chemical compositions.

Question 13.
What are the aims of conserving resources?
The aims of conserving resources-

  • To preserve the quality of environment resources.
  • To conserve the resource for the next generation (sustainable development).
  • To increase the utility and function of resource.
  • To prevent wastage of resources.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 14.
How can Iron ore be classified?
Iron ore can be classified into four groups on the basis of quantity and quality of ore iron
E.g. regnetite Fe3O4, Haematite Fe2O3,
Limeonete Fe2O3, 3H2O and Siderite FeCO3.

Question 15.
To which countries does India export iron ore?
India exports iron ore to Japan, the United States of America, China, Iran, Pakistan etc. India ranks fifth among the world’s iron ore exporting countries.

Question 16.
What are the main power resources of India?

  • Power or energy derived from coal and mineral oil.
  • Hydroelectricity produced from swift-flowing mountanous rivers.
  • Nuclear power derived from radio-active minerals like Uranium, Thorium etc.

Question 17.
Mention one iron ore producing and one coal-producing centre in India.
Iron ore producing centre-Gorumahisani of Mayurbhanj in Odisha. Coal producing centre-Jharia in Jharkhand.

Question 18.
Where is coal found in Jharkhand?
Coal is found in Jharia, Bokaro, Karanpur, Giridih, Ramgarh, Daltonganj areas of the Damodar valley in Jharkhand. Jharkhand ranks first in the production of coal in India.

Question 19.
What is ‘Sagar Samrat’ and ‘Sagar Vikash’?
The two floating vessels or ships on with platforms, which are used for drilling oil from the sea-bed in the Mumbai-Dariya region are called ‘Sagar Samrat’ and ‘Sagar Vikash’. These two vessels are responsible for drilling and exploiting the largest quantity of mineral oil in India.

Question 20.
Mention the names of two thermal-power centres in West Bengal.
The two thermal power centres in West Bengal are-

  • Kolaghat and
  • Bandel.

Kolaghat is the most important thermal power project in West Bengal.

Question 21.
What are the by-products of petroleum?

  • Asphalt or Peat
  • Naphtha
  • Carbon Black
  • Vaseline.

All these are used as raw materials in a host of industries.

Question 22.
What are the sources of Conventional energy?
The sources of conventional energy are coal, mineral oils or petroleum, swift flowing rivers, radio active minerals like Uranium, Thorium, etc. These sources of energy are being utilised over long periods of time.

Question 23.
What are the sources of unconventional energy?
The sources of unconventional energy are sunlight, wind, tides, sea-waves, geothermal energy etc. These are unlimited resources.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 24.
Discuss the saliant features of resource.
Resource is a matter which is capable of fulfilling the lack of supply or demand. The main features of a resource are its

  • utility
  • function
  • acceptability
  • applicability
  • universal demand
  • availability
  • restricted or limitedness
  • reducibility
  • environment-friendliness
  • capability of conserving the biodiversity.

Question 25.
Give the names of three coal mines in India.
The three coal mines of India are-

  • The coal belt of Damodar valley: This is the richest coal belt in India. Raniganj, Jharia etc are important coal mines here.
  • The coal belt or Mahanadi valley: Talcher, Rampur in Odisha and Korba in Chattisgarh.
  • The coal belt of Son valley: Umarie in Madhya pradesh and Jhilimili in Chattisgarh.

Question 26.
What are inexhaustible resources?
The resources which are not depleted even after using them repetitively are called inexhaustible resources. For example, sunlight, wind etc.

Question 27.
What are reusable resources?
The resources which are not completely depleted after use and can be used again are called renewable resources. For example, iron, copper, gold etc.

Question 28.
What are the raw materials used for producing nuclear energy?
Uranium, Thorium, Plutonium, heavy water, Hydrogen etc. are the raw materials used for producing nuclear energy.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 29.
What is cultural resource?
When knowledge, intellect and applicability are used in creating resources, they are known as cultural resources. Man is the creator of cultural resources. No resource would have been utilised unless there was development in cultural resources.

Question 30.
What are the obstacles of resources?
The factors which act as barriers in creating resources or destroy resources are considered to be obstacles of resources. For example, storms, war, etc.

Question 31.
What are national resources?
Those resources which are under the control of any state or country are called national resources.

Question 32.
What are social resources?
The resources which are governed by, is under the control and fulfills the demands of the society, are called social resources. For example, school, college, hospital etc.

Question 33.
Name the oldest coal mine and petroleum producing region in India.
1. The oldest coal mine in India is Raniganj. For the first time coal was hauled in 1774.
2. The oldest oil-producing centre India is Digboi. The first oilfield was drilled here in 1889.

Question 34.
What are international resources?
The resources which do not belong to any individual or any country, but are meant for mankind as a whole are called international resources. For example, oceans, Antarctica, ozone layer etc.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 35.
What is Green fuel?
Any fuel which is environment-friendly is called Green Fuel. At present, diesel is made sulphur-free and petrol is made lead-free in order to prevent pollution. They are called Green fuels.

Short Questions and Answers : (3 marks for each question)

Question 1.
Define resources.
According to Zimmerman (1992), a famous resource specialist, “Resource does not mean any object or matter, it is actually its function and process which makes that object or matter beneficial to man by fulfilling his demand.” In other words, the utility or function of any object or matter which is capable of meeting any demand is a resource. Thus ‘Resource is a medium through which a demand is fulfilled, be it an individual or a social demand.

Question 2.
What is meant by natural or physical, human and cultural barrier or obstacle?
The phenomena which cause harm to man by hampering the growth of resources, are called barrier. They are-
1. Natural barrier: When a natural or physical phenomenon acts as a barrier in the creation of resource, it is called natural barrier for example, severe storm, thunderstorm, cyclone, flood etc.

2. Human barrier: When human activities interfere with the creation of resources it is called human barrier.
E.g., war, scarce population, over population.

3. Cultural barrier: When any cultural factor acts as a barrier for creating resources, it is called a cultural barrier. E.g., religious fanaticism, superstition etc.

Question 3.
What are the factors responsible for creating resources?
There are 3 main factors responsible for creating resources- E.g.,

  • Nature
  • Man
  • Culture

They play important roles in creating resources either individually or in a combined manner. For example, in early times, coal was found lying idle in nature as a natural staff. Later, man with his ingenuity and cultural advance learnt to encavate coal from beneath the earth’s surface and started to put it into use for his own benefit. Thus, in this care, nature, man and culture have all played their roles in a combined way.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 4.
Explain the functionability of resources.
The ability to function of any object or inanimate matter is called the functionality of resource. The main concepts are-

  • Functional capability: The capability of any object to function converts it into a resource.
  • Dynamic in nature: The resource has to be dynamic in terms of its functionality.
  • The multifaceted roles of function: Any resource should not have any specific function. It should have the capability to function in many ways and for various purposes. For example, although petrol and diesel are derived from mineral oil, but at the same time, it has the capability of producing many other substances.

Question 5.
What are the controlling factors for creating resources?
The controlling factors for creating resources are-

1. Culture: The advancement of culture changes the function of a resource. In this way mentral stuff is converted to resource.

2. Place and time: An object or matter lying idle is considered neutral stuff in one place, but the same stuff is considered to be a resource in some other place. For example, radio-active minerals were considered to be barriers for development in early times, but now they are used as resources for producing electricity in the developed countries.

3. Technology: Technology or technical skill increases the functional capability of a resource. On The other hand demand, population figures etc., control the functionality of a resource.

Question 6.
What do you know about ONGC?
The full form of ONGC is Oil and Natural Gas Commission. It was established in the year 1956 and is a government organisation. Its headquarter is located in Dehradun in the state of Uttarakhand.


  • This organisation carries out surveys to locate mineral oil and natural gas in different parts of India.
  • Most up the mineral oil of India is hauled up by this organisation.
  • It also operates in various countries outside India.

Question 7.
What do you understand by fossil fuel?
When sediments are laid down layer by layer on the sea-bed or bottom of a lake or a wetland, remains of plants and animals get trapped in between them. Gradually, as a result of pressure exerted by the overlying horizontal layers of sediments, as well as the heat generated from beneath the earth’s interior, these remains turn into fossils.

Over long periods of time, these fossils lead to the formation of coal. Mineral oil and natural gas are produced from there oceanic micro-organisms, bacteria, plants cells etc. All these are the main sources of fuel and since they are derived from fossils they are called fossil fuels.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 8.
What is Coke?
When the grade of bituminous coal is improved through various processes in a coke furnace, it is called coke.
Process: The impurities present in coal such as, inorganic matter, soil, rocky matter, water, etc. are removed through processing in a coke oven or furnace and the quality of coal is thus improved.


  • Used for the purpose of producing thermal power.
  • It is widely used for extraction of metal from the original ore.

Question 9.
Where are oil refineries located in India?
There are about 22 oil refineries in India which purify or refine impure or unrefined mineral oil. They are-

  • Digboi, Guwahati, Bongaigaon, Numaligarh, Noonmati in Assam
  • Two refineries in Jamnagar, Koyali and Bhadinar in Gujarat
  • Manali and Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu
  • Trombay I and II of Maharashtra
  • Haldia in West Bengal
  • Tatipaka, Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Barauni in Bihar
  • Mathura in Uttar Pradesh,
  • Panipat in Haryana
  • Kochi in Kerala
  • Mangalore in Karnataka
  • Bhatinda in Punjab
  • Madhya Pradesh

Question 10.
What do you know abot NTPC?
NTPC or National Thermal Power Corporation was established in 1975. The main objective of this organisation is to investigate and create more thermal power belts in accordance with the ever increasing demand for electricity in India. At present there are altogether 16 thermal power based and 7 giant gas-based power centres in India established by NTPC. Farakka in West Bengal is such an example.

Question 11.
How does man hinder the creation and development of resources?
Demand is the sole factor for creation of resource for man. Man himself creates resources to be used for his own benefits. Again, man himself acts as a hindering factor for creating and developing resources to satisfy his needs. Some human activities that impede the creation of resources are as follows –

  • Over-exploitation and over-usage of resources have led to permanent depletion of resources.
  • There is a constant and indiscriminate destruction of forests (deforestation) which results from man’s greed and self-centredness.
  • Soil is polluted and the fertility is also decreased as a result or unscientific farming.
  • Huge quantities of resources are being destroyed in many parts of the world as a result of warfare, revolts, riots etc. Thus, man not only creates resources out is also responsible for destroying them.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 12.
Why is iron considered to be an aid in modern civilisation and industrialisation?
Iron is the carrier of modern civilisation. It is because of its multifarious use and importance, that the modern age is at times known as the iron age. Iron aids in modern civilisation and industrialisation in the following ways-

  • In the creation of pig iron or iron lumps.
  • A host of products E.g., manufacturing of tools and machineries, light and heavy engineering industry, automobile industry, manufacturing of alloys, building construction, agricultural implements and a number of household products.
  • Iron is widely used for making paints and other chemical products.

Question 13.
Why is coal known as stratified organic rock?
When plant remains are buried underground over millions of years, intense heat and pressure exerted on them bring about a change. The carbon accumulated in the trunks of these trees and plants undergoes chemical reaction which turn them into coal.

The coal is accumulated in between the layers or strata of sedinentary rocks and this is actually a hydrocarbon compound. Since coal is formed as a result of accumulation of plant remains and as a stratified sedimentary formation it is called a stratified organic rock.

Question 14.
What is the importance of multipurpose river valley projects?
Inspite of having abundant water resources (numerous rivers etc), only 7 percent of the flowing water is used for irrigation.

Concept: When dam is constructed across a flowing river the water thus stored is used for many purposes and for the economic benefit of the inhabitants of the region, it is called a multipurpose river valley project.


  • To ensure irrigation during dry and rainless reasons.
  • To control flood by controlling the flow of river water.
  • Generate hydroelectric power,
  • Supply of drinking water
  • Construction of bridges, roads and railways
  • Pisciculture or raising fish in the reservoir constructed behind the dam
  • Promotion of tourism in and around the dam area
  • To use the river as a waterway (water transport) etc.

Write the differences between the following

Question 1.
Renewable and Non-Renewable resources.
The differences between the two are given below —

Points of difference Renewable Resource Non-Renewable Resource
Exhaustibility Renewable resources do not exhaust due to gradual or regular usage. Non-Renewable resources exhaust due to gradual or regular usage.
Replenishment These resources replenish on its own. These resources can not be renewed or replenished.
Cost-effective Resources are more cost-effective Resources are less cost-effective

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 2.
Exhaustible and Inexhaustible resources.
The differences between exhaustible and inexhaustible resources are given below —

Points of difference Exhaustible Resources inexhaustible Resources
Recycled/Renewed Exhaustible resource cannot be renewed or recycled. Inexhaustible resources are renewed or recycled.
Cost-effective Procurement of these resource is costly. Procurement of these resource is not so costly. It is more cost-effective.
Environment pollution Usage of these resources cause the risk of environmental pollution. There is no risk of environmental pollution due to usage of these resources.

Question 3.
Neutral Stuff/Matter and Resources.
The differences between neutral stuff and resources are —

Points of difference Neutral Stuff/Matter Resources
Utility Neutral stuff do not have any utility, for example, barren land. Resources have utility, for example, coal.
Nature Neutral stuff are static in nature. Resources are dynamic in nature.
Importance/ Significance The significance of its usage is very low. The significance of its usage is higher.

Question 4.
Conventional and Non-conventional sources of energy.
The differences are as given below —

Points of difference Conventional Sources of Energy Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
Usage This type of energy has been in use for a long period of time. E.g., coal The use of this type of energy has gained popularity recently.
E.g., tidal energy
Environment Pollution Except hydroelectricity, the use of all other conventional sources of energy causes environmental pollution. Use of non-conventional sources of energy do not cause any pollution.
Storage Sources of this type of energy are exhaustible (except hydroelectricity). Sources of this type of energy are inexhaustible.

Question 5.
Coal from Gondwana and Tertiary Age
The differences are as follows-

Points of difference Coal from Gondwana Age Coal from Tertiary Age
 Age It was created approximately 30 crore years ago. It was created approximately 6-8 crore years ago.
Amount of carbon and heat (generated) Content of carbon is more, like bituminous and anthracite coal, thus the amount of heat generated is also more. Carbon content in this type of coal is less, like peat and lignite, thus this type of coal generates relatively less heat.
Location (in India) This types of coal is found more around the river valleys and plateaus of middle and eastern India. Found more in the Himalayan mountain region.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 6.
Tangible and Abstract or Intangible resources
The differences between concrete and abstract resources are —

Points of difference Tangible Resources Intangible Resources
 1. Tangibility These resources are tangible. These resources are intangible.
2. Visibility These resources have physical existence and can be seen with our eyes. These resources can not be seen with our eyes as they do not have any physical existence.
3. Utility These resources are useful to man. These resources are useful to man.
4. Example Minerals, crops, forests, etc. Skill, education, health, etc.

Question 7.
Personal/Individual and Social resources.
The main differences are given below-

Points of difference Personal / Individual Resources Social Resources
Concept Personal resources are owned/ controlled by an individual. Social resources are owned/controlled by the whole society.
Durability The social durability of this type of resource is low. Its use is restricted to one or a few persons. This resource is more for the use of general people. It is used for the benefit of many people in the society.
 Creation  This resource is created by an individual or he gets it as hereditary ownership/legacy. This type of resource is created by the collective effort of many people from within the society.
Examples House, Car, Education etc. School, Hospital, etc.

Question 8.
Biotic and Abiotic resources
The differences between biotic or organic and abiotic/in organic resources are given below-

Points of difference Biotic Resources Abiotic Resources
Concept Resources that are obtained from living organisms. Resources that are obtained from non­living objects.
Durability It is a renewable resource. If used properly this resource can last for a long time. Though mostly this type of resource is non-renewable, it is not destroyed quickly
 Examples Fish, Forest, Cattle etc. Water, minerals etc.

Give reasons for the following

Question 1.
Coal is known as Black Diamond.
Coal is known as Black Diamond because of the following reasons-

  • Composition: Coal and diamond are both made up of carbon.
  • Value: Diamond is a valuable gem. At the same time, because of its multiple use and importance, coal is also highly valuable in modern times.

Question 2.
Man is sometimes responsible for destroying resources.
Man not only creates resource, but also destroys it. For example-

  • Forests are lost due to indiscriminate felling of trees, thereby causing irreversible damage to the ecosystem.
  • Fertility of the land is diminished as a result of unscientific agricultural practices.
  • Quantities of fish are reduced as result of excessive and unscientific fishing.
  • Resources are (destroyed as a result of warfare, riots (based on religion, caste etc)
  • Pollution of water, land and wind is caused as a result of excessive use of fossil fuels.

Question 3.
Mineral oil is found only in
According to geologists, the remains of oceanic organisms are prone to much heat and pressure by the laying down of sediments (horizontally) on the ocean bed. They are ultimately converted to a liquid form. Water, oil and gas are trapped in between the layers of sedimentary rocks.

The anticlives of the folded sedimentary rocks contain oil and gas. Sandstone and limestone, (being a more porous rock) are usually the storing places of oil. This is the reason why mineral oil is found only in sedimentary rocks.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 4.
Why is the use of conventional sources of energy reducing day by day in modern times?
The reasons for the decreasing use of conventional sources of energy are-

  • Depletion: The various sources of conventional energy like coal, mineral oil etc, have already diminished due to overexploitation.
  • Pollution: Except hydroelectric power, all other conventional sources of energy lead to pollution.
  • Expensive: Conventional sources of energy are more expensive.

Question 5.
Petroleum is called Liquid Gold.
Gold is an expensive and widely used metal. In the same way, petroleum is also an important fossil fuel used for running cars, buses, trucks, railway engines, ships, steamers etc. In the modern times our transport system is very much dependent on petroleum. It is because of this value that petroleum has been compared to gold and is called ‘Liquid Gold’.

Question 6.
Hydroelectricity is an environment friendly energy.
Water of swift-flowing rivers are used for producing hydroelectricity. No fossil fuel is used for the production of hydroelectricity and hence it is pollution free. During the production of hydroelectricity no poisonous gas or smoke is emanated. Hence, hydroelectricity is considered to be an environment free energy.

Question 7.
India lags behind in the production of nuclear power in comparison to other countries of the world.
About 15 percent of all electricity produced in the world is derived from nuclear power. According to scientists, one pound of uranium or plutonium can produce about 12,000 M.W. of electricity. Thorium, Hydrogen, Lithium etc. are also capable of producing nuclear energy. In India, of all the electricity produced, only 3 percent comprises nuclear power. The total potential of producing nuclear energy from the existing nuclear power stations in India amounts to 4780 M.W. hours.

The reasons for the low production of nuclear power in India are-

  • Reserves of Uranium and Thorium are meager in India. Lack of raw materials is thus a hindrance to produce nuclear energy.
  • Huge amount of money is needed to build up the infrastructure of a nuclear power plant which is a problem for India.
  • A lot of social stigma exists for the setting up of nuclear power plants.

Question 8.
Hydroelectric power is called white coal.
Coal is the major resource for producing electricity. However, it is an exhaustible resource and also causes pollution. That is why hydroelectric power is produced by rotating a turbine on a swift-flowing river. It is an inexhaustible resource and can be used over and over again. Taking into consideration the importance of hydroelectric power and comparing it will coal, it is called ‘White coal’.

Question 9.
Man is both the creator and destroyer of resource.
Man creates resource. All the resources (except natural resource) used by man is created by him. He uses and benefits from these resources which he creates using his intellect, knowledge, technical skill etc. On the other hand, man is a destroyer of resource. Some resources are depleted after over-exploitation and excessive use by man. Resources are lost as a result of man’s ignorance and never-ending greed. Riots and warfare also damage resources. Prof Zimmerman has called it a “dual role of man’.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 10.
Population is called a resource.
Population is considered to be resource if it possess relevant philosophy, wisdom and super functionality. According to Prof. Zimmerman, ‘Man’s own wisdom is his, main resource’- this acts as an opener of world’s resources. Supply of labour is supported by population figures. It is man’s demand that creates resources. Higher quality resources are created by people with more advanced knowledge and technical skill.

A well-educated and technically skilled population is a valuable resource for any country. In India, most of the people cannot be considered as a resource as they do not have the necessary skill. Smaller countries like Canada, Australia and such others also can not develop the full potential of the resources due to scarce population.

Long Questions and Answers : (5 marks for each question)

Question 1.
What do you understand by resources? Classify resources citing examples.
Resource: A noted resource specialist Prof. Zimmerman (1992) has defined resource as-“Resource does not mean dry matter or substance, but it implies the utility and functionality of that matter or substance, which, in turn, fulfills man’s demand. Thus, ‘Resource is medium through which a goal is achieved, that is, to fulfill the demand of any individual or a society.’

On the other hand, in the Earth Summit held in Rio-de-Janeiro in 1992 resource was defined any matter which, besides fulfilling the demand of man through its utility and functionality also preserves biodiversity, should be considered a resource’. For example, coal is used for its heat and light after being taken out of the mines and then it is called a resource. At the same time, it has to be seen that the fume emanating from using coal does not pollute the environment.

According to Encyclopedia of Social Science, resource is a factor of man’s material and socioeconomic environment. Actually, to fulfill man’s demand and aspiration and to achieve a social objective.

Classification of Resources:

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India 1

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 2.
Give an account of different types of resources in India.
‘India is a resource-rich country’-Explain.
There are a variety of resources in India. They are as follows –
1. Land resources:

  • The total area of India is about 32 lakhs 87 thousand sq. kms.
  • India has the largest agricultural land among the Asian countries and the largest irrigated area in the world.

2. Water resources:

  • India is a land of rivers. Rivers like the Ganga, Indus, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri etc. with their large water content flow through India.
  • These rivers play an important role in areas of hydroelectric power production, water transport, supply of drinking water and irrigation water, deposition of fertile silt etc.
  • In spite of the fact that groundwater reserves are limited in amount, they are being utilised for drinking as well as irrigation purposes.

3. Forest resources:

  • Forests cover about 2-5 percent of the total area of India (India State Forest Report, 2011)
  • Valuable timber and other products are obtained from these forests.

4. Animal resources:

  • India is rich in biodiversity, especially in fauna (animal life). In terms of domestic animals and cattle, like goats, sheep, cows, buffaloes, yaks etc. India ranks first in the world.
  • Huge quantities of milk and milk products, meat, hides and skins, eggs etc. are produced from these goats, sheep, pigs, poultry (ducks and hens) etc.

5. Fish resources:
In India fish is caught both from inland fresh-water rivers, lakes and ponds as well as from saline waters of the oceans (from the continental shelves of the oceans). India ranks sixth in fish production the world and second in the production of inland fisheries.

6. Agricultural resources:

  • Since India is an agricultural country, large quantities of paddy, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, jute, oilseeds etc. are cultivated in the fertile plains and river valleys.
  • Besides, large quantities of tea, coffee, rubber, coconut, different types of spices, fruits and vegetables are also produced here.

7. Mineral resource:

  • India is rich in resources such as coal, iron ore, bauxite, mica, manganese, limestone etc.
  • However, petroleurn is scare in India.

8. Industrial resources: India is quite developed in industries like cotton-textile, iron and steel, sugar, engineering, tea, jute, information technology, jewellery etc.

9. Human resources:

  • India has the second largest population in the world after China. Hence, India has strong labour force.
  • The world’s largest productive population (young population) is in India. From the above discussion it can be concluded that India is a resource-rich country.

Question 3.
Discuss the concept of resources.
Concept of resources:
1. Physical factors: Natural resource like coal, iron ore, mineral oil etc. were known as physical or natural resources earlier.

2. Functionality of resources: According to a noted resource specialist, Dr. Zimmerman, ‘Resources do not mean the type of matter or substance, but its functionality and utility which enables to fulfill man’s demand’

3. Ability to fulfill demand or lack of supply: Any matter or substance is not a resource, it is neutral stuff. In fact, the functional ability and utility of that matter which enables to fulfill the gap in demand. Coal can be cited as an example.

When coal is present beneath the earth’s surface, it is not considered to be a resource. But, when coal is burnt to produce heat, it becomes a resource. This heat comes into various types of uses to fulfill man’s demand – this is its utility. Thus, coal and mineral oil are examples of resources.

Again, when land lies barren, it is not a resource since it does not have any utility or functional capacity. However when this land is used for agriculture and consequently yields of paddy, wheat, cereals etc. are obtained, then that land becomes a resource.

4. Intangibility: Coal and land can be seen and they are tangible in nature. However, man’s knowledge, intellect, social law and others cannot be seen or touched and hence they are intangible. However, they are considered to be resource since they have utility and functional capacity and are able to fulfill man’s individual and social demands. Thus, even if they are intangible, they are considered as resources.

5. Man-made: Since creation of resources is in the hands of man, their contraction and expansion occur (dynamic in nature) according to man’s demand as per time and space. Thus, if any matter can be used at any particular time (temporal) and space (spatial), and is capable of fulfilling man’s individual or social demands, it is called a resource.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 4.
What is the need for conserving resources? Give an account of the measures taken to conserve resources.
Need for conserving resources:

  • The ecological balance is maintained by conserving resources.
  • Natural growth is preserved in the case of biological or biotic resources.
  • Resources are retained to be used for the next generation (as a result of sustainable development of resources).
  • Economic growth is accelerated.
  • In some cases, resource conservation may also come into our aid during disaster management.

Measures taken to conserve resources:

  • To increase the longevity of conventional resources like coal, mineral oil by using renewable and non-conventional resources like solar power, wind energy etc.,
  • to curb wastage of resources by application of proper technology
  • to increase awareness and change man’s perception, for example, use of steel instead of wood in furniture-making (forests can be preserved in this way)
  • to enhance the functional capacity of resources, for example, development of a multi-purpose river valley project can be encouraged by building more dams across rivers
  • re-using and recycling resource. For example, used and damaged Aluminium utensils can be melted to manufacture new utensils
  • to collect resources by using scientific methods
  • to conserve resources by implementing government policies
  • to protect resources from being damaged by natural disasters
  • to control population growth worldwide, so that demand for resources is reduced.

Question 5.
Give examples of the iron ore mining centres in india. Mention the reserves and the trade capacity of India in iron ore.
The areas of iron-ore mining in india are:

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State-wise production of iron ore (201 1-12)

State Production (‘000 ton)
Odisha 67,013
Goa 33,372
Chattisgarh 30,455
State Production (‘000 ton)
Jharkhand 18,942
Karnataka 13,189
Andhra Pradesh 1,714

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

[source: indian Bureau of Mines, 2011-12]-
Reserves and Trade of Iron Ore in India:
Reserves: India has a reserve of about 2524 crore tonnes.
Trade: Japan, South Korea, Germany, Italy, China, are some of the countries which import iron ore from India.

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Question 6.
Classify iron ore. What are the uses of iron ore?
Classification of iron ore: On the basis of extraction of pure iron ore which is obtained after hauling up the mineral from the mine, it can be divided into 4 categories.

Iron ore Amount of iron ore (in%) Colour Salient features
>72 Black Iron ore of most superior quality
60-70 Red, Dark brown Abundantly found medium quality iron ore.
(2Fe2O3, 3H2O)
40-60 Yellowish brown Iron ore of superior quality
40-50 Greyish brown, greyish yellow Iron ore of most inferior quality

Uses of iron ore: Iron ore can be melted down to obtain pure iron from which cast iron and pig iron are obtained. Steel is produced by mixing proportionate amounts of manganese, nickel, tungsten etc. with pure iron. These, are used for various purposes.
For example,

  • For manufacturing tools and instruments like boiler, radiator, etc.
  • For manufacturing ships, railway engine, wheels of trains, cycles, etc.
  • For manufacturing different types of weapons used in warfare, e.g., tanks, rifles, etc.
  • For making agricultural implements like, axe, plough, tractor, etc.
  • Articles used for domestic purposes like scissors, knife, needle, etc.
  • Construction of houses like rods, frills, etc.
  • Articles used in transports, like buses, trucks, automobile, etc.

Besides these, iron and steel are also used in the manufacture of factories, bridges, etc. It is because of excessive use of iron and steel, in modern civilisation that this age is know as the ‘Iron Age’.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 7.
Give an account of coal giving its classification.
The main component of coal is carbon. Other matters like volatile matter, moisture and other impurities are also present in coal. It is on the basis of percentage of carbon present in coal that it is classified into 4 groups-

  • Anthracite
  • Bituminous
  • Lignite
  • Peat.

The details of these types are discussed below-

Name of coal Percentage of coat Other Compounds Quality Percentage of
world coal
Volatile matter Moisture
Anthracite 85%-95 3%-5% Residual Most superior quality (best) 5%
Bituminous 50%-85% 10%-30% Residual Moderately
good quality
About 80%
Lignite 35%-50% 15%-20% Residual Low quality About 15%
Peat Less than 35% 20%-35% Residual Worst quality Not used much

1. Anthracite: It is the best quality of coal. It has 85% – 95% of carbon content, but is scarcely found in India. It is hard and is shiny black in colour. It does not emanate smoke when burnt. It is usually used for heating purposes in houses.

2. Bituminous: This is a moderately good quality of coal and the carbon content is 50% – 85 %. Most of the world’s coal reserves are of this type. It is black in colour, but is not so shiny. It is not much hard and gives off smoke when brunt. Coke produced from this type of coal is used extensively in the iron and steel industry. Besides, it is also used for producing water vapour and most of the by products are obtained from this type of coal.

3. Lignite: This is inferior in quality and the carbon content ranges from 35%-50%. About 15 per out of the coal produced in the world is lignite. It is black or brown in colour and gives off smoke when burnt. It is used to keep houses warm and also to produce water vapour.

4. Peat: This contains less than 35% of carbon and that is why peat is not considered to be coal by many geologist. When brunt, wood is found in it and the odour of the smoke is also that of wood. Its fuel efficiency is much less, generates very little heat and emanates much smoke. When the carbon content of coal is very high (about 99% ) it is called graphite and the lead of pencil is made from it.

Question 8.
Mention the different uses of the byproducts of coal.
The by-products of coal are used for a variety of purposes, like-
1. Tar: After processing tar, a number of other matters are obtained, like-

  • Bitumen: used for constructing roads
  • Creosote: a variety of pesticides are developed from it.
  • Napthalene: it is used as pesticides
  • Phenol: used primarily as a pesticide. Beside these, perfumes and different types of paints etc. are derived from tar.

2. Toluene or T.N.T: Used for explosives.
3. Saccharine: It is sweeter than sugar and is mainly used as a medicine.
4. Ammonium Sulphate: It is used as freezing agent and fertiliser.
5. Benzol: Used to make paints.
6. Pyridine: Used to obtain paint and also used to vulcanize rubber.

Actually there are numerous by products (about 1,500 according to some and even more than 15,000 according to others) of coal, most of these byproducts are used as raw materials in the chemical industries and therefore boosts this industry.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 9.
Give a brief account of the coal mining areas in India. Mention the coal reserves and trade of coal.
Coal mining areas in India: The coal extracting regions in India are discussed under two subheads. These are-

1. Coal of the Gondwana Age: The formation of this layer of coal has its origin about 28-30 million years. About 99% of India’s coal reserves belong to this age. This coal is mainly of bituminous type. The regions from where Gondwana coal is extracted are as follows:
WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India 4

2. Coal of the Tertiary Age: During the formation of the Himalayas, about 67 million years ago, these coal deposits were formed. This type of coal is mostly of the inferior, lignite type coal. The areas of Tertiary Age coal production are —

  • Makum, Najira, Jeypore, Janji, and Disai in Assam
  • Namphuk, Namchuk and others in Arunachal Pradesh
  • Cherrapunji, Mauling and Tura in Meghalaya,
  • Bagrakot near Darjeeling and Teenjharia in West Bengal,
  • Kalakot, Methka, Chakar and Ladda in Jammu and Kashmir,
  • Umarsar in Gujarat
  • Palana in Bikaner district of Rajasthan
  • Bharkala in Kerala
  • Neyveli in South Arcot district of Tamil Nadu; Neyveli is also the largest storehouse of lignite coal in India.

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Production of coal in India (2013-2014) —

State Coal reserves
(In million metric ton)
1. Jharkhand
2. Odisha
3. Chattisgarh
4. West Bengal
5. Madhya Pradesh
6. Andhra Pradesh
7. Maharashtra
8. Uttar Presh

1. Reserves: Coal reserves in India amount to about 26.76 thousand million metric tonnes. It ranks fifth in the world in terms of coal reserves.

2. Trade: Small quantities of coal are exported to Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Japan, Nepal, Hong Kong and other countries. Coal is imported from South Africa, Australia, China, Ukraine and Russia.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 10.
Give a brief account of the oil and petroleum producing regions in India. Mention the petroleum trade that is carried out in India.
The petroleum producing regions of India are-

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India 6
[Source: Indian Bureau of Mines 2011-12]
Petroleum related trade in India: To meet the demand for petroleum, India imports oil form Russia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia and others.
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Question 11.
Give a brief account of uses of coal and mineral oil in India.
Uses of coal in india:
1. Production of thermal power: About 74 percent of coal is used as a raw material for the production of thermal power in India.
2. In the iron and steel industry: 5 percent of coal is used to smelt iron ore in the iron and steel industry.
3. In the cement plant: About 4 percent of India’s coal is used as fuel in the cement industry. Ash produced by burning coal is also used for manufacturing cement.
4. For domestic purposes: About 14 percent of India’s coal is used as a fuel for domestic purposes (cooking etc.)
5. In other areas/spheres:

  • Very little amount of coal is used in steam engines.
  • Byproducts like ammonia, creosote etc. are used for making fertilisers.
  • Bitumen is used for constructing roads and tar is used for constructing houses.

Uses of mineral oil in india: Mineral oil is used for many purposes in India, like-

1. In the transport industry: The byproducts of mineral oil like petrol and diesel are used to run buses, trucks, railway engines, automobile, cars, ships, aerroplanes, motorcycles etc.

2. For producing mineral power: Byproducts like furnace oil, high speed diesel oil etc. are used for producing thermal power.

3. For defence: Enormous amount of diesel and petrol are used for running different types of military vehicles. Thus, it is of utmost importance in this field.

4. In agriculture: Various byproducts of mineral oil are used for irrigation, making fertilisers, pesticides, medicines and also for running tractors, harvesters etc.

5. As raw materials for industries: Numerous industries in India have developed based on the byproducts of mineral oil. For example, plastic, detergent, paint, synthetic fibre, synthetic rubber, aromatic articles and other chemical industries.

6. Other utilities: Gas produced from mineral oil is used for cooking, as lubricants for machines, for constructing roads using asphait, for lighting kerosene lamps etc.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 12.
What do you mean by conventional and non-conventional sources of power? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Sources of conventional and non conventional power: The sources of power which have been in use over long periods of time and are still used abundantly are called conventional sources of power. For examples coal, mineral oil etc. On the other hand, those sources of power which are used sparsely at present but have huge potential to be used in the future are called non-conventional sources of power. For example, solar power, wind power.

Advantages and disadvantages of using conventional sources of power:

1. Advantages:

  • Since they have been in use for ages the technology used for its development and use are known and easily accessible.
  • Even if any country does not possess a particular source of power, it can import that power from another country where it is available.

2. Disadvantages:

  • Environmental pollution is caused by the use of most of the conventional sources of power.
  • Since most of these conventional sources are limited or exhaustible or non-renewable in nature, they are depleted after being used over long periods of time.
  • Huge capital and latest technology are needed to procure, use and develop such sources.
  • Use of conventional sources of power create differences between developed and developing countries.

Advantages and disadvantages of using non-conventional sources of power:

1. Advantages:

  • Its use does not lead to environmental pollution.
  • Too much capital is not required since they are used in small amounts.
  • Since they are not limited, inexhaustible or renewable in nature, there is no fear of them being depleted.
  • Such sources of power are easily available in most parts of any country.

2. Disadvantages:

  • Since they are nonconventional and sparsely used, technology is not easily available.
  • They are not available in the same, amount at all places in all the countries of the world. For example, tidal power cannot be tapped except in coastal areas, again, solar power is not available in frigid and cold zones. Wind power is also not suitable to be tapped in all places.
  • Such sources of non-conventional power can not be transported from one country to another.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 13.
What is fossil fuel? Why are nonconventional forms of energy being given importance in India?
Fossil fuels: Remains of plants and animals are embedded in the layers of sediments which are deposited on the ocean beds, beds of lakes or wetlands etc. Over due course of time, these gradually turn into fossils due to the pressure exerted on them from the overlying layers of sediments as well as the heat generated below them (from the earth’s interior).

It is in this way, the remains are converted to coal, whereas, mineral oil and gas are produced from the cells of plants, marine organisms, bacteria etc. This is the reason why coal and mineral oil etc. are called fossil fuels.

Reasons for giving importance to use of non-conventional sources of power in India: The sources of power which are less used presently but have the potentials of being extensively in the future are called non-conventional sources of power. For example-

  • Solar power
  • Wind power
  • Tidal energy
  • Power from sea waves
  • Geothermal energy
  • Bioenergy.

Reasons for giving importance to use such sources of power in India are as follows –

1. Ever-increasing demand for energy: In a fast, developing country like India demand for energy is increasing rapidly. However India possesses limited reserves of mineral oil and natural gas. Huge costs are incurred to import power from foreign countries. This is the reason why utmost importance is now being given to tap non-conventional sources of power.

2. Limited reserves of coal: Besides being limited in nature, coal is available only in certain pockets of India.

3. Limited production of hydro-electric power: Although India has huge potential for developing hydroelectricity (being a country with many swept-flowing, perennial and snow fed river, they have not been exploited properly. That is why stress is laid on developing non-conventional sources of powers.

4. Abundance of non-conventional sources of power: Since they are renewable in nature and unlimited in supply, sources like solar power, windpower, tidal energy and such others have huge potential to be developed and used.

5. Other sources of power are expensive: Production and use of coal and petroleum are expensive and so a shift towards using non-conventional sources of power is endorsed.

6. Production using small amount of capital: Since non-conventional sources of power can be used in small amounts, much less capital is required to tap and use them.

7. Environment-friendly: Use of nonconventional sources of power do not lead to environmental pollution unlike the conventional sources. Due to this, importance is being given to the development of non-conventional sources of power in India despite its present weak economic condition.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 14.
How is mineral oil formed? Classify mineral oil.
Formation of mineral oil: The term ‘petroleum’ has been derived from the Latin word ‘petre’ meaning rock and ‘oleum’ meaning oil. Thus, the oil that is found in rocks is called petroleum or rock oil or mineral oil.

According to scientists, mineral oil is formed in two ways-organically and inorganically.

1. Organic way: Scientists say that the dead remains of plants and animals which were embedded within the layers of sedimentay rocks over long periods (5-6 million years) in the Tertiary age, have been exposed to pressure and heat and as a result of change in its chemical composition, mineral oil is formed.

2. Inorganic way: According to a Russian scientist, Shakhnin, mineral oil is formed as a result of chemical reaction of water with the carbide present in the sedimentary rocks.

Usually, the mineral oil deposits are found accumulated in the anticlinal parts of fold mountains and they are known as ‘pool’s. The bottom-most part of such an anticline contains heavy water overlaid by light mineral oil and natural gas is found on the topmost part. Deep wells are dug and unrefined mineral oil is brought out to the surface to be refined thereafter.

Classification of mineral oil: On the basis of difference in chemical composition, mineral, oil can be classified into 3 types-

1. Paraffin-based crude oil: This oil contains high amounts of light hydrocarbon (e.g., methane). Petrol, wax (paraffin) and high grade lubricating oil are derived from this, which is used extensively.

2. Asphalt-based crude oil: It is sticky in nature and black in colour. It contains heavy hydrocarbon. Its use is comparatively less. Large quantities of ashalt or bitumen is obtained from it besides some oil derived for running cars.

3. Mixed-based crude oil: This type is of medium quality. Both heavy and light types of oil are mixed and this type of oil is used both as a fuel and as lubricant. The chemical composition of this type of oil varies both in terms of quantities and locations.

1. Paraffin-based crude oil: This oil contains high amounts of light hydrocarbon (e.g., methane). Petrol, wax (paraffin) and highgrade lubricating oil are derived from this, which is used extensively.

2. Asphalt-based crude oil: It is sticky in nature and black in colour. It contains heavy hydrocarbon. Its use is comparatively less. Large quantities of ashalt or bitumen is obtained from it besides some oil derived for running cars.

3. Mixed-based crude oil: This type is of medium quality. Both heavy and light types of oil are mixed and this type of oil is used both as fuel and as lubricant. The chemical composition of this type of oil varies both in terms of quantities and locations.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India 8

Question 15.
Give an account of the thermal power plants in India. Why are the thermal power plants concentrated in eastern India?
Thermal Power Plants in India:

Region Location
1. East India Durgapur, Farakka, Bandel, Budge Budge, Santaldih, Mejia, Bakreshwar and Kolaghat (West Bengal); Bokaro, Patratu, Chandrapura and Tenughat (Jharkhand); Talcher, Ib valley, Angul and Rourkela (Odisha); Kahalgaon, Muzaffarpur and Barauni (Bihar).
2. North east India Bongaigaon, Kathaiguri and Namrup (Assam).
3. North India Singrauli, Anpara, Obra and Harduaganj (Uttar Pradesh); Panipat, Guru Hargobind and Guru Nanak 0ev (Punjab); Badarpur and indraprastha (Delhi); Tau Devi Lai and Faridabad (Haryana).
4. Middle Western India Korba (Chhattisgarh); Satpara, Vindhyachai and Amarkantak (Madhya Pradesh); Chandrapur, Trombay, Koradi and Nasik, Bhusawal and Paru (Maharashtra); Wanakbori, Gandhinagar, Ukai, Dhuvaran and Sabarmati (Gujarat); Suratgarh, Kota and Anta (Rajasthan).
5. South India Neyveii, Mettur, Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu); Raichur (Karnataka); Ramagundam, Vijayawada and Kottagudem (Andhra Pradesh including Telangana).

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India 9

Reasons for concentration of thermal power plants in eastern India: The reasons are as follows-
1 Easy availability of coal: The eastern part of India has the richest reserves of coal. Asansol-Raniganj in West Bengal; Jharia, Bokaro, Karanpura, Giridih in Jharkhand; Talcher, Rampur in Odisha etc. are well known for coal reserves.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

2. Huge demand for electricity: The four states of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha are all densely populated. Besides a host of industries in this region, like, Hooghly industrial area of West Bengal, Jamshedpur-Ghatshila industrial area, Sindri-Bakaro-Dhanbad industrial area, Raurkela industrial area in Odisha are located here. As a result of this, there are huge demands of electricity in these areas.

3. Scarcity of other sources of power:

  • Eastern India does not produce mineral oil and natural gas.
  • There is dearth of hydroelectricity production since swift flowing perennial rivers are not present here abundantly. That is why coal based thermal power has found importance.

4. Historical reason: Since the British period, the source of power used by the Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation is 100% thermal power based. The thermal power plants under CESC are Mulajore Kashipur, Metiaburuj, Titagarh, Budge Budge etc. The power consumed by the industries in Kolkata and its surrounding areas are met by these plants.

5. Other facilities:

  • Developed transport infrastructure is available in this region, like, National Highways- NH-2,6,23,31,33 etc. and eastern and southeastern railway lines.
  • Cheap and abundant labour and skilled technologists are available for the thermal power plants.
  • Government policy for development of industries in this region has also paved the way for overall development and concentration of thermal power plants in this region.

Question 16.
What are the favourable locational factors for the development of hydroelectric power? Mention the major hydroelectric power plants of India.
Favourable locational factors for development of hydroelectric power can be classified into-

1. Natural or physical factors and
2. Non-physical factors.

Natural or physical factors:

Rugged or mountainous terrain: Swift-flowing rivers flowing over rugged terrain can be tapped for generating hydroelectricity. South Indian rivers flow over such terrains and hence are conducive for generating hydroelectric power.

Regular and abundant water: Continuous supply of water in the rivers either through rainfall or melting of snow is needed for producing hydroelectric power.

Ice-free winters and moderate summers: Such conditions prevail in South India where the rivers do not freeze in winter or the river water is not exposed to evaporation due to excessive temperature in summers.

Presence of forests: If the source region of a river is forested, soil erosion is prevented, which in turn, prevents siltation of the river bed. Besides, rainfall is also influenced by vegetative cover of forests.

Geological structure: Hydroelectric power stations are usually built on geologically stable areas. This is why although North India has more potential for generating hydroelectricity, it is not exploited. Being geologically stable, more hydroelectricity is generated in South India.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

2. Non-Physical factors: The favourable conditions for generating hydroelectricity are-

  • highly developed technology
  • sufficient capital
  • huge demand for electricity in the are a and its vicinity
  • lack of other sources of power like coal, petroleum etc.
  • developed transport system
  • easy availability of skilled labour etc.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India 10

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India 11

Question 17.
What are the advantages of generating hydroelectricity in South India compared to North India? What is the economic importance of hydroelectricity?
Advantages of generating hydroelectricity in South India as compared to North India. There are differences in the geographical factors of South and North India in terms of generation of it hydroelectricity. They are-

1. Abundant flow of water: Rivers of South India receive abundant supply of rainwater which allow smooth flow of river water as compared to snow fed Himalayan rivers of North India.

2. Natural swift flowing rivers: The terrain being rugged in nature, rivers of South India are swift-flowing in comparison to North Indian rivers which mostly flow over plain areas.

3. Rivers flowing from mountains: The courses of south Indian rivers are long enough to allow swift flow of rivers which can be tapped for harvesting hydroelectricity and hence many hydel stations has been set up there in comparison to North India.

4. Nature of rocks: The underground physical structure of peninsular india comprises of impermeable rocks. Large reservoirs can be constructed to store water, to be used throughout the year for generating hydroelectricity.

5. Lack of other resources: Lack of resources like coal and mineral oil in South India has compelled South India to use hydroelectric power more, as compared to North India where coal and mineral oil are concentrated, especially in east and northeastern parts. It is due to the above facts that South India generates more hydroelectricity than North India.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Economic importance of hydroelectricity:

  • Hydroelectricity is a flow resource, and hence is it is renewable and inexhaustible. Hence, nonrenewable and exhaustible resources like mineral oil can be conserved by using hydroelectricity.
  • Environmental pollution is not caused by hydroelectricity.
  • Hydroelectric power is comparatively cheaper.
  • A number of economic purposes like those of irrigation, flood control, fisheries or pisciculture, and others are served through generation of hydroelectric power.

Question 18.
Mention the advantages of hydroelectric power as compared to other sources of power. What are the disadvantages of producing hydro electricity?
Advantages of hydroelectric power in comparison to other sources of power:

1. Unlimited resource: Hydroelectric power is inexhaustible or renewable in nature and is known as flow energy. On the other hand, coal, mineral oil, natural gas, Uranium and Thorium etc are exhaustible or fund energy resources and are prone to depletion due to continuous exploitation.

2. Cost of production is less: Although at the initial stage, the cost incurred for setting up hydel power plant is more, the recurring expenditure is less and is thus economical in the long run unlike other sources of power.

3. Environment-friendly: Since no smoke or dust generates during generation, of hydroelectric power. Hence, it is clean energy and environment friendly.

4. Heat generated is more: Hydroelectricity generates more heat as compared to coal and mineral oil resources and as such hydel plants are constructed near to those industries which require more energy and heat, for example, aluminium smelting industry.

5. Easily tranportable: Hydroelectricity can be easily transported through transmission lines from one place to another. Whereas, in case of coal and mineral oils vehicles are used or pipelines are constructed which are expensive as well.

6. Requires less labour: As compared to coal and mineral oil where large number of labours are required at every stage of production, hydroelectricity requires minimum labour force.

7. Various economic benefit: Multiple benefits are derived from hydel projects, for example, irrigation, flood control, fisheries or pisciculture, transport etc.

Disadvantages of hydroelectric power: They are as follow-

1. Establishment of hydel project near the source: Hydel Project has to be established at or very near the source of swift flowing rivers, whereas, raw materials for other sources of power can be transported.

2. Cannot be stored: There is no scope for storage.

3. Huge capital investment and lack of developed technology: Developing and underdeveloped countries cannot meet the huge capital and technological demands.

4. Loss of biodiversity: Since dams have to be constructed across rivers and reservoirs for storing water have to be constructed, large tracts of land are lost, thereby resulting in destruction of forest vegetative cover and biodiversity (flora and fauna).

5. Problem of rehabilation: Since many people lose their land and property it becomes very difficult to provide for their shelter/homes as well as means of livelihood.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 19.
Give a comparative study of coal, petroleum and hydroelectric power.
A comparative study of coal, petroleum and hydroelectric power is-

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India 12
Question 20.
Show comparison between thermal power and hydel power. What is “White Coal” ?
A comparison between thermal power and hydel power is given below-

Subject Thermal power Hydel Power
1. Sources Resources like Coal, Petroleum are used for production. Torrential flow of water is used for production.
2. Nature It is non renewable resource, and is exhaustible in nature. It is a renewable resource and is exhaustible in nature.
3. Production cost Though its primary cost is low, the recurring cost is quite high. Its primary cost is very high, though the recurring cost is low.
4. Location Thermal power plants are not required to built near the coal extracting or oil extracting areas. Hydel power plants has to built near banks of swift flowing river.
5. Maintenance cost Maintenance cost is high. Maintenance cost is low.
6. Cost of construction Cost of construction and the time taken for construction is quite low. Cost of construction is quite high. Skilled labour is required for construction.
7. Effect on environment It causes environmental pollution, air pollution, loss of bio diversity. No environmental pollution or loss of bio-diversity seen due to hydel power projects.

Question 21.
State the distribution of non-conventional energy in India and also its usage.
The usage and distribution of non-conventional forms of energy in India is shown below-

Power energy Distribution Use
1. Solar energy Uttar Pradesh (Barbanki), West Bengal (Jamuria), Rajasthan (Phalodi, Jodhpur), Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat (Patan, Mithapur, Rajkot) Madhya Pradesh (Bhagwanpur, Ujas),    Andhra Pradesh (kadiri), Lakshwadeep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, etc. 1. Used for lighting.
2. Heating of water.
3. Used as fuel for cooking purpose.
2. Wind energy West Bengal
(Frazerganj, Sagardweep), Chennai, Hyderabad, Gujarat (Lamba), Tamil Nadu (Southern Coastal areas).
1. Used for pumping water for irrigation.
2. Used for electricity production.
3. Water pumps are run by wind power.
3. Geo-thermal energy Himachal Pradesh (Manikaran), West Bengal (Bakreshwar), Gujarat (Cambay), Maharashtra (Jalgaon). 1. Used for keeping rooms warm.
2. Used for melting ice or snow.
3. Used for production of electricity.

Question 22.
What do you mean by Nuclear power? Give the distribution of nuclear power plants and their use in India.
Nuclear power: When energy is generated by fusion or fission of a nucleus of an atom, with the help of advanced technology, such an energy is called nuclear energy or power.
Nuclear energy is produced from Uranium Thorium, Plutonium, Lithium etc. Of the total
energy generated in the world, 15 percent comes from nuclear power.

Uses of Nuclear power:

  • It is used in the production of electricity.
  • Nuclear power is used to supply energy to artificial satellites.
  • Nuclear power is used for desalination of sea water.
  • Nuclear power is also used for running sub ships etc.
  • It is used for producing geothermal energy and for medical purposes.
  • It is used for extraction of copper and manganese and as fuel to be used for various industries.

About 12,000MW of electricity is generated from only a pound of Uranium or Plutonium, whereas, about 6,000 tonnes of coal is needed to produce the same amount of electricity. This is the reason why nuclear energy has much possibilities.
WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India 13

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 23.
What are the merits and demerits of using nuclear power?
Nuclear energy is produced by fusion or fission of the nucleus of an atom.

The merits of using nuclear power are as follows-

  • More production of energy: A large amount of energy can be produced by using Uranium, Thorium etc. as raw material. For example, about 12,000 megawatts of electricity can be obtained from only a pound of Uranium.
  • Establishing nuclear power plant: A nuclear power plant can be established at any place requiring small quantity of raw material.
  • Low cost of production: Nuclear energy can be produced by using less capital. Thus, electricity can be produced at a low cost.
  • Environmental pollution is not directly caused: Although, the nuclear wastes are toxic, the environment is not directly polluted.

The demerits of using nuclear power are as follows-

Problem of radition: The effect of radiation as a result of using nuclear power is harmful as it is the cause of cancer and other diseases and affects life adversely.

Problem in production: The raw materials of nuclear power have not been utilised on an economical basis. The cost of production is high since Deuterium oxide has to be bought from Uranium-rich countries.

Other Problem:

  • Lack of advanced technology
  • In may cases, nuclear power is used to harm human lives.
  • A nuclear power plant’s longevity is about 30-40 years after which a new power plant has to be constructed which involves huge costs at any point of time.

Question 24.
What is wind power? What are the merits and demerits of wind power?
Wind energy: The energy which is produced by harnessing wind speed by wind mills is called wind energy. This is a nonconventional and renewable (Flow) resource. Wind speed is at maximum within 100 meters from the earth’s surface.

Merits of using wind power:

  • Environment-friendly: Environmental pollution is not caused by producing or using wind energy.
  • Unlimited: This being a flow resource its availability is unlimited in nature and is renewable.
  • Easy technology: Technology can be accessed easily.
  • Low cost: A wind power plant (wind mills) can be constructed at a low cost and reporting the machineries are also relatively cheap.
  • Used for various purposes: Wind power can be used for hauling water, grinding wheat etc.

Demerits of using wind power:

  • Sound pollution: High waves of sound are generated when wind mills operate causing sound pollution.
  • Dependant on wind: Problem is caused as a result of varying wind speed and change in direction of wind.
  • Less amount of energy produced: Electricity produced by wind power is relatively less in amount.
  • Region-based: Wind power can only be harnessed in coastal areas, open deserts and in mountainous areas.
  • Awareness: It is not yet universally used due to lack of awareness.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Question 25.
What is geothermal energy? What are the merits and demrits of geothermal energy?
Geothermal energy: The energy which is derived from the interior of the earth is called geothermal energy. Heat has been accumulating in the earth’s interior over long period of time. It has been observed through investigation that with every 1km of depth below the earth’s surface, temperature rises at the rate of 25°C. Geothermal energy does not cause environmental pollution. India generates only a small amount of such energy.

Merits of using geothermal energy:

  • Unlimited resource: Since its availability is unlimited in nature, its continuous use does not cause depletion of these resources.
  • Environment-friendly: Toxic gases do not emanate as a result of using wind-power and so it does not cause environmental pollution.
  • Continuous use: This type of energy can be used throughout the year continuously during day and night time.
  • Easy production: Geothermal energy can be produced easily.

Demerits of using geothermal energy:

  • Expensive: The initial cost of establishing a wind power plant is quite high.
  • Productivity is low: It can meet local demand only as its production is low.
  • Developed technology: The technology is available only in developed countries of the world.
  • Region based: This type of energy is not well-distributed and occurs in pockets in certain regions and hence cannot be used universaliy.

Question 26.
Discuss the uses of solar power. What are the merits and demerits of solar power?
Uses of solar power: The light and heat that is generated from the sun continuously is called Solar power. Nowadays, this solar energy is tapped to produce electricity by using silicon solar cells or photo-voltaic cells. From the resource point of view, solar energy is a flow resource, renewable and universally available (ubiquitous in nature). There are uses of solar power, for example-

1. Roads, several houses, health centres, industries, educational institutions are all lighted up by using solar power.

2. Solar power is used for heating purposes in household of cold countries and for heating water as well.
WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India 14

3. It is also used as a fuel for cooking purpose.

4. Salt is obtained by processing sea water with the help of solar power which has been in practice since a long time.

5. It is used to ripen crops.

6. Electricity is produced directly from sunlight by using photovoltaic cells. The use of solar power is ever-increasing since it is used for producing electricity, lighting the roads, signals for railway lines, running small water pumps and a host of other domestic purposes.

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

7. Through the solar heating system, sunlight is used for a variety of processes, like-

  • Solar dryer: The air is dehumified by blowing hot air and thereby conserving the crops.
  • Solar lumber kiln: Wood is dried by this method.
  • Solar desalination: Fresh drinking water is obtained from the saline sea water through the process of alternate evaporation and condensation process.
  • Solar distillation: Water is purified by solar heating by using aiternate evaporation and condensation techniques.
  • Solar cooker: This is the easiest, simplest and most useful gadget used by us by harnessing solar energy. This gadget uses the reflection method for heating.

Merits and demerits of using solar power:


  • Solar power is an unlimited resource and it is renewable.
  • Sufficient solar power can be tapped even on cloudy days.
  • It is an environment-friendly energy.
  • A number of small, medium and large solar power plant can be established.


  • Since sunlight is not evenly distributed throughout the world, solar power cannot be produced everywhere.
  • Since the cost of production is relatively high, developing nations cannot use solar power on a large scale.
  • The technology used is not available easily everywhere.

Question 27.
Make a comparative study between conventional and non-conventional energy.
The comparative study between conventional and non-conventional energy is given below-

Subject Conventional energy Non-conventional energy
1. Concept This energy is produced by using traditional age old processes. This energy is produced by using ecofriendly sources.
2. Sources Coal, petroleum, natural gas, radioactive substances, flowing water are the sources of this kind of energy. Sunlight, wind, tides, geo-thermal energy are the sources of this type of energy.
3. Power intensity A huge amount of energy can be produced by using conventional methods. So large scale industries have a high demand for this type of energy. It is used in small amounts for household purposes, or for small scale industries. Large amount of energy has not been produced through this source yet.
4. Capital Huge capital is needed. Capital requirement is less.
5. Impact on environment It is not eco-friendly in nature and has adverse effect on the environment. It is eco-friendly in nature, and has no adverse effect on the environment.
6. Importance As large amount of energy can be produced through this source, the conventional source of energy is very important. But it is quite uncertain whether this source would be important in the future. As less amount of energy is produced through this source, less importance is given to it. But there are high chances that this form of energy would gain importance in near future.

Question 28.
Discuss the distribution of solar and geo-thermal energy in India.
Distribution of Solar energy:

State Centre Production capacity (%)
1. Gujarat Patan, Mithapur, Rajkot, Surendranagar 49.90
2. Rajasthan Pokhran, Jodhpur, Phalodi 38.89
3. Madhya Pradesh Bhagwanpur, Ujas 9.15
4. Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Kadiri 3.18
5. Maharashtra Katol, Osmanabad, Mulsi 1.38
6. Tamil Nadu Coimbatore 1.14
7. Odisha Patapur 0.99
8. Uttar Pradesh Barabanki 0.91
9. Karnatak Belgaon, Kolar 0.69
10. West Bengal Jamuria 0.15

WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 7 Resources of India

Distribution of geo-thermal energy:

State Production center
1. Jammu and Kashmir
2. Chattisgarh
3. Himachal Pradesh
4. West Bengal
5. Gujarat
6. Maharashtra
Puga Valley
Unai, Jalgaon


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