WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

Detailed explanations in West Bengal Board Class 8 History Book Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority offer valuable context and analysis.

WBBSE Class 8 History Chapter 3 Question Answer –¬†Establishing the Colonial Authority

Think aund Find –

1. Find the Odd one out:

a. Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, Bengal.
Answer:
Bengal.

b. Clive, Hestings, Dupleix, Cornwallis.
Answer:
Dupleix.

c. Bengal, Bihar; Indus region, Orissa.
Answer:
Indus region.

a. David Hare, Willam Carey, Jonathan Duncan, William Pitt.
Answer:
William Pitt.

2. Pick the wrong statement.

a. Bengal Presidency was known as Fort St. George Presidency.
Answer:
Wrong.

b. Benaras Hindu college was established by Jonathan Duncan.
Answer:
Right.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

e. William Carey was a member of Srirampore Missionary Society.
Answer:
Right.

d. The cmopany started the Ijaradari system for ten year revenue collection.
Answer:
Wrong.

3. Answer briefly (30-40 words)

Question a.
What was the British Presidency system?
Answer:
British East India company was mainly a trading company. They had made their centers for their business interest in Kolkata, Bombay and Madras. The Presidency system was grown on yje basis of these centers.

Question b.
What role did Lord Cornwallis play to organise the company for accumulate law system?
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis put a great effort to organise the company formulated law system. The Brahmin pandits and Muslim moulabis were engaged in explaining the native laws. Then the laws were translated in English. In 1793 Lord Cornwallis took out a compiled code of laws.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority 1

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

Question c.
What was the company’s sipahi bahini?
Answer:
An important weapon of colonial rules was the army or Sipahi bahini. The British formed the Sipahi bahini with the Indian Soldiers to supress the revolt or occupy the lands. The soldiers who joined the sipahi bahini received regular salary and other facilities.

Question d.
What rple did James Rennell play in the company’s land survey?
Answer:
In 1764 British company appointed James Rennells as survey or General or the head of land survey department. The waterways of Bengal were surveyed in 1764 by Rennell and he made 16 maps of waterways. This was done in Bengal for the very first time.

4. Write in your own words (120-160 words)

Question a.
Compare the administrative reforms of Warren Hastings and Cornwallis. What were the effects of these reforms on the Indians?
Answer:
In 1772 Lord Warren Hastings abolished dual government and divided Bengal into 35 districts for the convinience of administration and Judiciary. A Diwani and a Fowzdari court was established at every district. Besides in 1774 a supreme court was formed at Kolkata and a Nizamat court was established at Murshidabad. Hastings reformed the Judiciary system the divided Bengal, Bihar and Orissa into 6 divisions. A Diwani court was established in each division. The responsibilities of Judiciary in each division was vested on a Dewan or Amin.

Lord Cornwallis transferred the Nizamat court from Murshidabad to Calcutta and Fauzdari Judiciary system was brought under the company. He introduced four mobile courts. Those courts performed judgement wandering different districts. He seperated Diwani court and revenue collection. The judiciary power of collectors was abolished. Provincial appeal courts were set up at calcutta, Patna, Murshidabad and Dhaka. The Chief Justice in all courts were Europeans. In fact Indians were removed from the colonial system of Judiciary. The organisation of Judiciary became one of the main pillars of colonial rule.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

Question b.
What role did the Bureaucracy play in British administrative system? How did the Bureaucrats organise as a narrow interest group.
Answer:
Bureaucracy was the main tool of eivil administration under colonial rule. But the bureaucrats could not formulate policies. They can only implemented the policies of the British Government. So an organised bureaucracy was essential to colonial ruie.

To organise the bureaucracy under company rule Cornwalli’s introduced civil service system His objective was to make the British rule in corruption free. He banned receiving gifts and practising private tracts by law. Not only he increased salary of the officials but also started the system of job promotion. He believed that in adequate salary forced them to compromise with dishonesty.

He started appointing Indian civil service. For this purpose the Indians were trained for administration. Fort William college was established in 1800 A.D. The civil servants were trained there. All examinees of the civil sevice examination had to be taught at Hailbury college. Learning in a single college of training created a sense of unity among the civil servants. They considered themselves as a separate lobby.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority 2

Question c.
What difference existed between the Company’s education policy with regard to Bengal and Bombay? What effect do you think the Company’s education pulicy had on Indian society?
Answer:
Warren Hastings brought the sanskrit Pandit form various regions for spread of education. He also established Madrasa in Calcutta where Arabic and Persian language were taught. William Jones founded Asiatic society at Calcutta in 1784. His objective was to translate the ancient Sanskrit texts into English. He thought that the understanding between educated Indians and the British would be smooth in this way. Western Science was taught in sanskrit college with sanskrit literature. In a proposal of 1839 the students were given right to study Indian language apart from learning English. In Bombay Presidency from the very beginning importance was given on the study of western science through Indian language method was adopted.

The goal of the colonial rule was to educate a few people of the society and attach them to the administration. There was no aim for mass-education. Due to lack of proper training and hands – on activities, education was confined to bookish knowledge. The traditional Indian sducation was loosing its importance. The British policy of education neglected the woman education at the first stage. Later woman education spreade through individual effort.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

Question d.
What was the relation between company rule and land survey? What was the reason for starting and abolishing of Ijaradari system?
Answer:
Company rule was related to land survey. The process of revenue fixation based on land survey was important. After the battle of Plassey the British East India company got the zamindari from 24 Parganas to Kulpi from Nawab. Frankland was appointed to survey the land. Frankland died leaving the survey unfinished and Hog Cameron completed his work. After surveying the waterways of Bengal James Rennell made 16 maps of waterways. In 1770 a comptrolling committee of Revenue was formed for land survey and fixation of revenue after the battle of Bauxer and getting of Diwani, then Board of revenue was formed.

According to the land revenue system of Warren Hastings in 1772, the land would be handed over to those who would promise the maximum revenue during the bidding process. This is called ljaradari system. This ljaradari system was abolished for some reasons. They are – in most of the cases the revenue fixed was higher than the revenue carned. Because of this ljaradar could not pay the revenue.

5. Imagine and write (200 words)

Question a.
Suppose you are a company Sipahi. Write a letter to your friend about your work and work atmosphere.
Answer:
Dear Suman,
Hope you are well. You have wanted to know about my work and work atmoshere. I am writing this in my letter. You know that I am a Sipahi of East India Company. Our job is of two type – 1. To occupy various region for extending the company area. 2. To supress the revolt that creats from the rage of the people.

The company is always careful about us. The salary is higher than most of other jobs. But we have consciousness and moral sense. Sometime people revolt for wrong and unjust of company. Then we have to torture on the people of our own country for supressing the revolt even knowing that company is doing unjust. Then we feel guilty.
But we have to do that as we are paid by them. Whatever is our place has to do the same. At the beginning I felt very guilty but now not so far. The dignity of the past gives us some kind of power. Hope you can understand it.
No more today. I shall wait for your letter.
Your loving friend

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

Question b.
Suppose you are a citizen of Calcutta in the first lialf of ninetecnth century. Write a conversation between two educated Indians during the establishment of Hindu school and Bethune school.
Answer:
1st person : Hallow! How are you? From where are you coming?
2nd Person : Not so far but from very near, You know Bethune school has been constructing. I have been there. Probablly the school has been establishing by some Bethune Saheb.
1st Person : I also know this. His work is worth-praising. The company is not bothering about the spreading of woman education. The school will promote the spreading of woman education. So it is a very important work.
2nd Person : You are right Company is granting more amount for education, many schools are establishing but they are neglecting woman education. When will the government realise the importancy of woman education.
1st Person : There should be a movemant about it.
2nd Person : Some works have been started by some individual effort.
1st Person : Hope that the Government will be concerned.
2nd Person : That will be better.
1st Person : OK. Bye Bye.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority 3

Class 8 History Chapter 3 Question Answer West Bengal Board – Establishing the Colonial Authority

Multiple Choice Questions & Answers :

Question 1.
At Madras in 1639 Company establish a-
i) military base
ii) trading enterprise
iii) military head Quarter
Answer:
ii) trading enterprise

Question 2.
Regulating Act was passed in the year –
i) 1773
ii) 1784
iii) 1785
iv) 1770
Answer:
i) 1773

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

Question 3.
In 1785 came to force-
i) Regulating Act
ii) Pitt’s Act
Answer:
ii) Pitt’s Act

Question 4.
A Supreme Court was established at Kolkata in –
i) 1773
ii) 1777
iii) 1770
iv) 1774
Answer:
iv) 1774

Question 5.
Daroga system was abolished in-
i) 1812
ii) 1816
iii) 1880
iv) 1882
Answer:
i) 1812

Question 6.
In 1790 company started the system-
i) Panchsala
ii) Eksala
iii) Dassala
iv) permanent
Answer:
iii) Dassala

Question 7.
In 1800 Fort Williams college was established in-
i) Madras
ii) Mumbai
iii) Madras
iv) Kolkata
Answer:
iv) Kolkata

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

Question 8.
Asiatic Society was founded at Kolkata by-
i) Charles Winkins
ii) William Jones
iii) Jonathan Duncan
iv) Bethune
Answer:
ii) William Jones

Question 9.
Sir Edward Hyde East, the Chief Justice of Supreme Court and David Hare were the founder of-
i) Madrasa
ii) Sanskrit college
iii) Hindu college
iv) David Hare Training College
Answer:
iii) Hindu college

Question 10.
In 1844 it was compalsory in case of government service to know-
i) English
ii) Farsi
iii) Bengali
iv) Sanskrit
Answer:
i) English

Question 11.
In Benaras Iindu college was established by-
i) Charles Winkins
ii) William Jones
iii) Jonathan Duncan
iv) Chartes Ilalled
Answer:
iii) Jonathan Duncan

State whether True or False:

1. Sindhu region came under the Bombay Presidency.
Answer:
True.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

2. Regulating Act was passed in 1773.
Answer:
False.

3. In 1972 Company started a mew form of justice.
Answer:
True.

4. Lord Cornwallis belicved in adequate pay forced the employees to compromise with honesty.
Answer:
True.

5. All examinces of the civil service examination had to enroll at Hindu college.
Answer:
False.

6. Calcutta Madrasa was established in 1793.
Answer:
False.

7. Alexander Duff came to Kolkata in 1829.
Answer:
True.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

8. Raja Rammohan Ray was associated with the activities of Hindu College.
Answer:
True.

9. The Baptist Mission was established in 1970.
Answer:
False.

10. The appoinment of Indians in the Civil Service was stopped from the time of Lord Cornwallis.
Answer:
True.

11. The daroga system was permanently abolished in 1812 .
Answer:
True.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

12. In 1797 Supreme Courts were established in Kolkita and Madras.
Answer:
False.

13. From 1801 Various local pundits were appointed in Fort William College.
Answer:
True.

14. Around 1853, many a school in Bombay presidency taught in the vernacular.
Answer:
True.

Fill in the blanks :

1. The administrative centre of Madras Presidency in Summer was –
Answer:
Otakamund.

2. By the Regulating Act became the capital of British rule.
Answer:
capital.

3. was the Chief Justice of Supreme Court.
Answer:
Elijah Impay.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

4. was considered important as a weapen of colonial rule.
Answer:
Sipahi bahini.

5 . of Srirampore Mission taught at Fort William college.
Answer:
Willium Carey.

6.
The aim of college was to cultivate Sansdrit literature and spread Western education.
Answer:
Sanskrit.

7. Hindu college in kolkata was founded in
Answer:
1817 .

8. The was one of the mainpillars of the colonial rule.
Answer:
army.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

9. Primarily, the opposition to colonial rule was handled by the
Answer:
police.

10. In 1793, Lord Cornwallis compiled a code of A
Answer:
laws.

11. In 1772 the Company started a new – system.
Answer:
judicial.

12. In 1772 the Company started a new – system.
Answer:
judicial.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority 4

Match column A with B

A B
In 1772 company got Supreme Court was founded
As a trading enterprise by the magistrate.
Pitt’s Act supressed by the sipahies
In 1793 Cornwallis in Fort Willium college
In 1823 at Bombay was founded by Jonathan Duncan.
Darogas were controlled In 1784
Many revolts the Parmanent settlement.
the civil servants were taught the Nizamat Right.
Hindu college in Beneras took out a compiled code of law.
Asiatic Society was established Hindu college was established
In 1817 Surat started declining
Cornwallis introduced in Bengal Came in force in 1785.

Answer:

A B
In 1772 company got the Nizamat Right.
As a trading enterprise Surat started declining
Pitt’s Act Came in force in 1785 .
In 1793 Cornwallis took out a compiled code of law.
In 1823 at Bombay Supreme Court was founded
Darogas were controlled by the magistrate.
Many revolts the civil servants were taught
the civil servants were taught was founded by Jonathan.
Hindu college in Beneras Duncan.
Asiatic Society was established Surat started declining
In 1817 the Parmanent settlement.
Cornwallis introduced in Bengal the Nizamat Right.

Answer in a sentence :

Question 1.
In which year company established business center in Madras?
Answer:
In 1639 company established business center in Madras.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

Question 2.
What was the earlier name of Bombay Presidency?
Answer:
The earlier name of Bombay Presidency was West Presidency.

Question 3.
What was the name of the Fort of Calcutta set up by British as they did in Madras?
Answer:
Fort William.

Question 4.
In which year the Regulatin Act was passed?
Answer:
The Regulating Act was passed in 1773.

Question 5.
Which new post was created according to Regulating Act?
Answer:
According to Act the post of Governor General was created.

Question 6.
Who was Willium Pitt?
Answer:
Willium Pitt was the Prime Minister of Britain.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

Question 7.
When did Pitt’s Act was come to framed?
Answer:
Pitt’s Act was framed in 1784.

Question 8.
When did Pitt’s Act come to force?
Answer:
Pitt’s Act came to force on Ist January 1785.

Question 9.
When was Supreme court estsblished at Calcutta?
Answer:
Supreme Court was estsblished in 1774 at Calcutta.

Question 10.
When was Supreme Court estsblished at Madras?
Answer:
Supreme Court was estsblished in 1797 at Madras.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

Question 11.
Who and when took out a cempiled code of law?
Answer:
Lord Cornwallis took out a compiled code of law in 1793.

Question 12.
Under whom Bentinck created a special division to supress the Thagis?
Answer:
Bentinck created a special division under Cornel Sleeman to supress the Thagis.

Question 13.
Who established thanas in distroicts and when?
Answer:
In 1793 Cornwallis established thanas in the districts.

Question 14.
Who was in charge of each thana?
Answer:
A daroga was in charge of each thana.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

Question 15.
Mention one of a function of Sipahi of company.
Answer:
One of the functions of Sipahi is to supress the revolts.

Question 16.
Who were publicised as military race?
Answer:
The Jaths, Pathans, Rajputs, Nepali, Gurkhas were publicised as military race.

Question 17.
Who started the Civil Service system?
Answer:
Cornwallis started the Civil Service system.

Question 18.
When was the Fort Willium college founded?
Answer:
The Fort Willium college was founded in 1800 A.D.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

Question 19.
Who had to enrol at Heilbery College?
Answer:
All examinees of the civil service examination had to enroll at Heilbery college

Question 20.
What was the most famous school founded by Alexander Duff?
Answer:
The most fameus school founded by Alexander Duff was General Assembly Institution.

Question 21.
Who opposed the foundation of Sanskrit college and spread of Sanskrit education?
Answer:
Raja Rammohan opposed the foundation of Sanskrit college and spread of Sanskrit education.

Question 22.
Who was Macaulay?
Answer:
Macaulay was the president of the General committee of public instruction.

Question 23.
Who was Charles Wood?
Answer:
Charles Wood was the President of Board of control.

Question 24.
When was Hindu College established?
Answer:
Hindu College was established in 1817.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

Question 25.
When was Council of Education was formed in Bengal?
Answer:
in 1843 Council of Education was formed in Bengal.

Give answer briefly :

Question 1.
Write a short note on Baptist Misson.
Answer:
The Baptist mission was established in 1800 . The missionaries of Srirampore joined the company in the spread of education. They set up their own printing press and printed bengali books. William Carey was the prominent person among the Baptist missionaries. He translated the Indian epics into English. He also translated a portion of the Bible into several Indian languages. Carey edited and published Halhed’s Bengati grammar book in 1778 .

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority 5

Question 2.
Write a short note on Regulating Act.
Answer:
Regulating Act was passed in 1773. According to the law the power and authority of Bengal, Madras and Bombay was regulated. A new post of Governor General was created. It was decided that Governor of Bengal would be Governor General and the Gevernors of Bombay and Madras would serve under him. The Governor General’s council consisted of members. The terms of the Governor General would be five years. Calcutta became the capital of British empire in india by the law.

Question 3.
Write a short note on Wood’s Despatch.
Answer:
Charles Wood, the president of Board of control, sent a despatch in July 1854 to creat an organised structure of education from primary to upper school level. This is called Wood’s Despatch. It recommended-i) Indian and English language as the medium of instrofion from shcool level. ii) English language as the medium of instruction from college level to the upper most level of education. iii) For opening an education department and creating a post of director of Public instruction. iv) Vernacular tongue as the medium of woman education and vocational training.

WBBSE Class 8 History Solutions Chapter 3 Establishing the Colonial Authority

Question 4.
What was the objective of the educational policy of the colonial Government?
Answer:
The colonial government spread western education for their own purposes. It was not possible to bring Europian bureaucrats essential in administration or trade in India. So in the beginning of British rule in India the British put effort to spread western education to create English educated group of clearks to help them in administration. The aim of such education was to educate a few people from the society who were attached to the colonial structure. They had no plan for mass education.

Answer in details

Question 1.
Write about the Judicial reforms of Lord Hastings.
Answer:
After abolishing Dual Government system Governor General of East India company Lord Hastings started reforms of Judiciary system. A Diwani and a Fowzdari court was established at every district. A Kazi and a Mufti were appointed at the Fowzdari court but the control power was in the European hand. The Brahmin Pandit and Muslim Moulavis explained the laws. Later a great change occured in the Dewani system. Hastings divided Bengal, Bihar and Orissa in six divisions. A Diwani court was established in each division. Each division compressed of several district. The judiciary power of each district was vested on a Dewan or Amin. In 1773 according to Regulating act Supreme Court was established.

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