Practicing with West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Book Solutions and West Bengal Board Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2019 alongside detailed explanations can lead to a deeper understanding of the subject.
WBBSE Class 10 Geography Question Paper 2019
1. Write the correct answer from the given alternatives
1. The process by which the height of the earth’s surface increases is ………….
2. Deep cracks on the surface of the mountain glacier are called ………….
3. Annual range of temperature remains minimum in ………….
Answer: Equatorial climate region.
4. Cold local wind that blows in Rhone valley of France is called ………….
5. The place where warm and cold ocean currents converge is called ………….
Answer: Cold wall.
6. When the distance between the earth and the moon is farthest, it is called-
7. In human body, contaminated water may cause ………….
8. The main basis of state recognisation in India is ………….
9. The source of river Ganga is ………….
Answer: Gangotri glacier.
10. In India, the largest multipurpose river valley project is ………….
11. The state which ranks first in production of rice per hectare is ………….
Answer: West Bengal.
12. The required raw materials of iron and steel industry include.
Answer: All of them.
13. According to 2011 census the number of metropolis in india is ………….
14. The latitudinal and longitudinal extension of million sheet topographical map is ………….
1. If the statement is true, write ‘T’ and if false, write ‘F’ against the following :
1. Altitude of snowline varies with latitudes.
2. Wind velocity is measured with the help of Anemometer.
3. Salinity of sea-water is maximum in Equatorial region.
4. The highest plateau of India is Deccan Trap.
5. The old alluvial soil of Ganga plain is called Bhangar.
6. Vishakhapattanam is the only tax-free port of India.
7. Red coloured lines are used to show roads in satellite images.
2. Fill in the blanks with suitable words
1. Holes formed by abrasion on river bed are called pot holes.
2. Smog is formed by mixing of dust and fog during winter in industrial region.
3. Labrador current causes snowfall in New Foundland.
4. Waste paper is a solid/biodegradable type of wastes.
5. Tropical early jetstream forests south-west monsoon winds to blow over India.
6. The southernmost most paint of mainland India is kanyakumari.
7. Kolkata is the most populous city of India.
3. Answer in one or two words
1. Which type of rainfall is found in Temperate zone?
Answer: Frontal or cyclonic rainfall.
2. Which island of Sundarban was completely submerged due to global warming?
Answer: New Moore island.
3. Which type of natural vegetation is found in the desert region of India?
4. On which quarters of moon, does Neaptide occur?
Answer: 1st and 3rd quarters of the moon.
5. In which part of the course, river Ganga is maximum polluted?
Answer: Middle course.
6. Name one Zaid crop of India.
Answer: Aus rice, nuts, pumpkin, cucumber, etc.
7. Which state of India leads in ‘Rain-water harvesting’?
Answer: Tamil Nadu.
8. Where is the headuarter of ‘Survey of India’ located?
4. Match the left column with the right column.
|1. Prominence of ozone gas||a. Gurgaon|
|2. Research Institute of sugarcane||b. Jammu & Kashmir|
|3. Largest automobile manufacturing industrial centre||c. Stratosphere|
|4. Karewa||d. Lucknow|
1- c, 2-d, 3-a, 4-b
3. Answer the following in brief
What is denudation?
After weathring, when the weathered earth materials are remained from their position by erosion and mass wasting, the surface beneath the debris becomes open and forms a new landform. This process of opening up of the new surface of the landform is called denudation.
Denudation-Weathering + Erosion + Mass wasting
What is inversion of temperature?
By the normal lapse rate, temperature reduces by 6.4°C with every 1km or 1000m rise in altitude. But in some cases, it is seen that temperature increases with increase in height or altitude. This phenomenon is known as the inversion of temperature. This is common in valleys of mountainous regions during early morning and late night
What is ‘Inter-tropical convergence zone’?
The Inter-tropical convergence zone is the region around the equator, extending up to about 5°-10° N and S latitudes. It is called so because the Northeastern and South-eastern Trade winds meet in this region.
State the definition of ocean current.
A continuous and regular horizontal movement of ocean water in a fairly defined direction over a great distance on the surface or sub-surface of the ocean is called ocean currents. they are mostly caused by wind direction, rotation of the earth, temperature, salinity and density of ocean water, prsence and location of landmass, etc. Ocean currents are of two types-warm currents and cold currents.
Define waste management.
Waste management is the method of collecting wastes scientifically, segregating then, taking steps for recycle, reuse and reduction, so that the ultimate damage or pollution caused by the wastes comes down to the minimum.
What do you mean by radioactive wastes?
Radioactive wastes are by-products of various nuclear technology processes. Industries generating radioactive wastes include nuclear medicine, nuclear research, nuclear power, manufacturing, construction, coal and rare-earth mining, nuclear weapons reprocessing, etc, Radioactive wastes include any material that is either intrinsically radioactive or that has been contaminated by radioactivity.
Where is Malnad region located?
The Malnad region is located in the western part of the Karnataka plateau. This region is 320km long and 35km wide. It is highly dissected, and have deeply cut valleys.
Name two watershed regions of India.
The main watershed regions of India are :
- The Himalaya and the Karakoram ranges.
- The Vindhya-Satpura ranges.
- The Western Ghats.
What do you mean by millet crops?
Millets are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown in India as well as around the world as foodgrains for man and fodder for animals. The millets are hardy grains that can grow well in dry zones as rain-fed crops, under conditions of low soil fertility and low soil moisture. Eg- Jowar, Bajra, Ragi, etc.
Name one agro-based and one forest-based industries of India.
- Agro-based industries in India: Sugar mills, rice mills, cotton textile industry, edible oil mills, tea industry, coffee industry.
- Forest-based industries in India: Paper industry, match box and card board industry, rubber industry, furniture industry.
State the definition of satellite imageries.
Satellite imageries are photographs of the earth and other planets captured by imaging satellites that are installed in space. These are prepared by reading and representing the signals sent by the satellites with the help of high technological know-how.
State the use of Representative Fraction (R.F.)
Representative Fraction (R.F) is a scale which is represented as a fraction that contains no unit. Hence, it can be used for any unit eg. cm to m or km, inch to feet, etc. It is readable and usable in any country with a unit system suitable to them.
4. Give brief explanatory answers
State three differences between ‘Seif dunes’ and ‘Barkhans’
- The term Seif comes from the Arabian word ‘Seif’ meaning a straight sword.
- Formed like straight lines parallel to the wind direction
- They are narrow and straight and look like parallel ridges.
- They are very long dunes, Width is very less, but height may be a few be hundred metres.
- The term Barkhan comes from the Turkish word ‘Barkhan’ meaning sand mountain.
- Formed like a curve diagonal or perpendicular to wind direction.
- They are crescent-shaped dunes. The windward side is convex and the beward side is concave.
- They are not very huge in size. Widthh lies between 20-30m and height may around 30m.
Briefly explain any three factors to identify the mediterranean climate in Temperature-Rainfall graph.
The Mediterranean climate can be identified with the help of the following factors :
- Average annual temperature remains about 13°- 18°c
- Average summer temperature is 14°-22°c
- Average winter temperature is 10°-14°c
- Average annual rainfall is 35-75cm, which mostly occurs during winter due to the moist westerly winds.
Briefly discuss any three effects of wastes on environment.
The effects of wastes on the environment are :
- Solid wastes lying on the ground for a long time pollute the soil and water of the region. It may spread bad smell and cause air-pollution as well.
- Chemical wastes coming from pesticides, insecticides, etc. Tend to reduce nitrogen content of the soil and reduce fertility. Numerous animals and microorganisms may get killed, and land may gradualy become unproductive.
- Accumulation of wastes in rivers, lakes, ponds, oceans, etc. cause death of numerous aquatic plants and animals. Fishes may loose their reproductive capacity. Water ecosystems may get disrupted.
- Wastes disposed on grounds change the chemical properties of soils. Soils may become acidic and salty and unfit for vegetation growth.
Briefly discuss the role of students in waste management from any three perspectives.
Effective waste management is best achieved at household level, and students can take an active role in this process. They can take up the following steps-
i. Reduce waste creation :
- Use towels and ceramic plates instead of paper napkins and disoposable plates.
- Use biodegradable shopping bags instead of plastic bags.
ii. Reuse things :
- Use old clothes, old toys, books, etc. from elders.
- Make innovative items from discarded things Eg- Penstand from soda cans, Rags from old clothes.
iii. Cleaning programmes :
- Awareness camps and demonstration programms regarding garbage disposal.
- Schools can arrange groups of students for regular survey, Whether the local people are following cleaning and garbage disposal systems or not.
Mention three differences about characteristic features of tropical evergreen and tropical deciduous vegetation of India.
|Tropical Evergreen forests||Tropical deciduous forest|
|i. Tropical evergreen forests are very dense.||i. Tropical deciduous forests are compartively less dense.|
|ii. The trees are very tall and highly branched.||ii. The trees are moderately tall and branched.|
|iii. The trees do not shed their leaves altogether in one season. Thus the forest appears green throughout the year.||iii. The trees shed their leaves together in the dry season, hence the name deciduous.|
|iv. The leaves of the trees create a canopy over the head of the forest and allow very little sunlight to penetrate the forest.||iv. The leaves of the trees are comparatively smaller in size, hence do not create a canopy over the head of the forest. Hence, the forests receives sufficient sunlight.|
Explain with examples the influence of raw materials on the developments of industries in India.
Development of industries in any region is dependent upon various factors. Raw materials is one of them.
a. Availability of a certain raw material in a region determines the development of a particular industry in that region. Eg-Availability of coal and iron are along with other necessary raw materials in the Asansol-Durgapur belt has helped in the growth of iron and steel industry in that region.
b. Unless the particular raw material is available in a particular region, the related industry cannot grow, even if all other necessary things are available. Eg-Sugar industry cannot develop in Rajasthan due to unavailability of sugarcane in the vicinity.
c. Nature of raw materials determines the location of the industry. Eg-Sugar mills must be located near the sugarcane producing regions, so that the canes can be moved to the mills very fast. If the raw materials are pure, like cotton industry can be located at the source of raw materials or at the market.
Briefly discuss about three main characteristic features of satellite imageries.
The characteristic features of satellite imageries are :
- They can supply complete weather information and imagery of a full hemisphere at a time.
- Imageries can also be obtained in segments for detailed descriptions.
- They help in resource surveys, for eg-locating huge collection of fishes in ocean water, monitoring agricultural yields, etc.
- The informations collected by satellite imageries is digital, that can be easily analysed by computers.
Mention the merits and demerits of remote sensing.
The merits of remote sensing are :
- Remote sensing helps to conduct surveys of regions from very long distances with the help of satellites, without coming in physical contact with the region.
- Surveys can be easily conducted during day or night time and on any kind of terrain.
- Most of the work in remote sensing is done with the help of computers and other sophisticated machines, Hence, very little man-power is required.
The demerits of remote sensing are :
- Remote sensing is a very expensive affair, as it includes use of highly sophisticated computers and machineries and satellite services.
- Remote sensing requires a special kind of training to analyse the images. Hence the images are not readable or usable for common people.
- Sometimes large scale engineering maps cannot be prepared from satellite data which makes remote sensing data collection incomplete.
5. Answer any two questions from the following :
Describe with sketches three major landforms developed by erosional work of rivers.
The different landforms developed by the erosional works of rivers are :
i. Gorge or V-shaped valley: In the upper course of the river, the down-cutting force is much more than lateral of side-cutting force of erosion. Hence the channel develops more depth than width, and takes the shape of a V-shaped valley.
ii Canyon or I-shaped valley: When the river flows through an arid region made up of nonresistant rocks, most of its energy is spent in down-cutting rather than widening of the valley. Thus the valley takes the shape of an ‘I’-shaped valley.
iii. Pot holes: Round disc-like depressions curved by the swirling water and rock fragments on the bed or floor of the river are called pot holes.
iv. Waterfalls : When water of the river falls freely from a height due to very steep slope, it is called a waterfall. They are further classified into rapids, cataracts and cascades.
Explain the factors responsible for the formation of equatorial low pressure belt and polar high pressure belts.
The factors responsible for the formation of equatorial low pressure belt are:
- The sun gives its maximum heat to this region through perpendicular rays. Hence, air gets heated, lightened and rises up.
- Presence of huge water bodies and much heat leads to high rates of evaporation. The air gets filled with water vapour and becomes light.
- Rotation of the earth tends to deflect air due to coriolis force.
- Presence of vast forests add up to water vapour in the air due to transpiration.
The factors responsible for the formation of polar high pressure belts are :
- The sun gives the most inclined rays to the polar regions. Heat is very less, hence the air is very cold and heavy.
- There is very less water vapour in the air, as the rate of evaporation is very less.
- Some air from the adjacent sub-polar low pressure belts rise and descend towards the poles, and increase the density of air over there.
Give an account of occurance of orographic rainfall with suitable example and diagram.
Orographic rainfall is typically found in hilly and mountainous regions. When the moisture lader winds blowing from the sea strike against mountains, the humid winds rise up along the windward slope.
As they rise, they cool down and bring heavy rainfall to the windward slope. Such a rainfall caused due to hindrance or obstruction by a mountain is called orographic or relief rainfall. (‘Oro’-greek word meaning mountain).
Explain the causes responsible for the development of high tides and ebb.
The causes responsible for the development of high tides and ebb tides are :
i. Gravitational pull of the moon: Although both the sun and the moon exert gravitational force on the earth the sun’s force is only 46% of that of the moon, due to its large distance from the earth compared to the moon. Hence, the moon’s influence on the tides is twice as strong as that of the sun.
The water of the earth nearest to the moon is pulled by its gravitational force. This makes the water on this side bulge, causing high tide. Waters on the opposite side also experience high tides at a comparatively lower scale. The areas perpendicular to these areas of high tide experience ebbs or low tides.
ii. Effect of centrifugal force for rotation of the earth: Rotation of the earth causes generation of centrifugal force. Which tends to throw the waters outwards. This causes the rise of water as tides. The regions lying perpendicular to the regions of high tides experience ebbs or low tides.
iii. Gravitational pull of the sun: The sun also helps to cause tides. When it lies in the same side as the moon, it causes very big tides. When the sun lies in the opposite direction to the moon, it causes weaker tides.
2. Answer any two questions from the following :
State the differences between the physical characteristics of North and South Indian rivers.
The differences between the physical characteristics of the North and South Indian rivers are :
|North Indian Rivers||South Indian Rivers|
|1. The North Indian rivers originate from the Himalayan range. Hence they are both rainfed and snowfed.||1. The South Indian rivers originate from the plateau region. Hence they are only rainfed.|
|2. The rivers are perennial, as they are both rainfed and snowfed.||2. The rivers tend to dry up in the dry season. Hence, they are non-perennial.|
|3. Most of the rivers exhibit their upper, middle and lower courses. Hence, they are ideal rivers.||3. Most of the rivers do not exhibit the three courses prominently. Hence, they are not ideal rivers.|
|4. The rivers are very long. They form ‘V’ and ‘I’-shaped valleys in the upper course.||4. The rivers are not very long. They mostly run through rugged regions and form less deep valleys.|
|5. The rivers are navigable in the middle and lower courses as the rivers are perennial and these regions have very gentle slope.||5. The rivers are not navigable as they are non perennial, and flow over rugged terrain.|
|6. These rivers have more number of tributaries.||6. These rivers have less number of tributaries.|
|7. These rivers carry a huge amount of silt and hence form big deltas at their mouth.||7. These rivers carry comparatively lower amount of silt, and hence form smaller deltas.|
Give a brief account of alluvial and black soils of India.
|Alluvial soil||Black soil|
|1. Formed by deposition of sand, silt clay and organic matter brought down and deposited by rivers.||1. Formed by weathering of basalt rocks.|
|2. The colour of the soil varies from lightbrown to dark-grey.||2. The colour of the soil varies from black to dark-brown.|
|3. Found in the river valleys of India, especially along the middle and lower courses.||3 . Found in the plateau region of Maharashtra, parts of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, parts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.|
|4. Alluvial soil is best for growing crops like rice, wheat, sugarcane, jute, etc.||4. Block soil is best for growing crops like cotton, tobacco, jowar, wheat, etc.|
State favourable physical conditions required for cultivation of wheat.
The favourable physical conditions required for cultivation of wheat are :
- Temperature: Wheat prefers temperature around 155°c. The temperature should be low at the time of sowing, but as the time of harvesting approaches, higher temperature (about 21°c-26°c) is required for ripening of the crop.
- Rainfall: Wheat thrives well in areas receiving an annual rainfall of about 75cm – 100 cm. In areas receiving rainfall less then 50cm, the deficiency is recovered by irrigation.
- Frost: There should be atleast 100 frost-free days. Long gloomy or foggy weather is harmful for crop.
- Soil: Chernozem is the best suited soil for wheat. It also grows well in light clayey or heavy loamy soil.
- Land: Wheat grows well in well-drained slightly rolling plains
Discuss the importance of transportation system in India.
The importance of transportation system in India are –
- Transport system helps in moving agricultural products, industrial raw materials, finished manufactured goods, etc to the required regions.
- In helps in transportation of labor and other necessary things for the development of agricultural, industrial and other sectors.
- It makes different products available to all the corners of the country, so that uniform development can be made possible.
- It helps in growth of new towns and bigger cities and hence brings about urbanisation.
- It helps to remove regional disparities and inequalities.
- It makes administrative works easier.
- It helps to raise the National Income and bring about socio-economic development of the country.
Locate the following with appropriate symbols and names on the given outline map of India. Attach the map with the answer script.
1. Vindhya mountain
2. Loktak Lake
3. River Mahanadi
4. One-rainshadow region
5. One mangrove forest region.
6. One desert soil region.
7. One sugarcane producing region of north India.
8. One heavy engineering industrial centre of eastern India.
9. Vishakhapathnam Port.
10. A megacity of western coast.
Answer any ten of the following questions :
1 Name the longest river of South India.
2 Which is the largest lagoon in the eastern coast of India?
Answer: Chilika lake in Odisha.
3 Name one tributary of Indus that flows through Punjab plain.
Answer: River Sutlej.
4 In which month kalbaisakhi occurs in India?
5 Name a state having laterite soil.
Answer: Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh.
6 What type of natural vegetation grows on saline soil of India?
Answer: Mangrove vegetation.
7 Name one plantation crop produced in India.
Answer: Tea, coffee.
8 Where is the largest petro-chemical industry of India located?
9 Name the most populous state of India according to 2011 census.
Answer: Uttar Pradesh.
10 What is the name of the international Airport of West Bengal.
Answer: Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport.
11 What are the dry river vallays of the deserts called?
12 In which layer of the atmosphere, disturbances are found?
13 Name the highest peak of South India.
Answer: Dodabetta Peak.
14 Name and iron and steel industrial centre of West Bengal.
Answer: Kulti, Burnpur, Durgapur.