Detailed explanations in West Bengal Board Class 9 Life Science Book Solutions Chapter 1.3C Classification of Kingdom Plantae offer valuable context and analysis.
WBBSE Class 9 Science Chapter 1.3C Question Answer – Classification of Kingdom Plantae
Very Short Questions and Answers : (1 mark for each question)
Members of which group of plants are not divisible into roots, stems and leaves?
Members of thallophyta are not divisible into roots, stems and leaves.
Name an alga which has spirally coiled chloroplast In its cells.
Spirogyra is an alga, has spirally coiled chloroplast in its cells.
Name a filamentous alga having prokaryotic cells.
Nostoc is a filamentous alga, having prokaryotic cells.
Name a colony-forming alga.
Volvox is a colony-forming alga.
Name a unicellular alga, which is now treated as a protist.
Chlamydomonas is a unicellular alga, which is now treated as a protist.
What is the fine, branched, colourless, filamentous structure of a fungus called?
The fine, branched, colourless, filamentous structure of a fungus is called mycelium.
What are the filaments of a fungal mycelium known as?
The filaments of a fungal mycelium are known as hyphae.
What is the name of the fungal component of a lichen?
The fungal component of a lichen is called mycobiont.
What is the name of the algal component of a lichen?
The algal component of a lichen is called phycobiont.
Which type of bryophytes form velvety thallus on moist soil?
Liverworts form velvety thallus on moist soil.
What is the name of the erect portion of moss?
The erect portion of moss is called gametophore.
What is the name of the stem-like portion of a moss?
The stem-like portion of a moss is called caulid.
What is the name of the fine root-like structure of a moss?
The fine root-like structure of a moss is called rhizoid.
What does the rhizoid of a moss do?
Rhizoid of a moss absorbs water from the soil and affix the plant body to the soil.
Which type of plants possess leaves, stems and roots but do not develop flower and fruit?
Ferns possess leaves, stems and roots but do not develop flower and fruit.
Which plants possess ramenta on their stems and the petioles of leaves?
Ferns posses ramenta on their stems and the petioles of leaves.
Name a plant in which aerial part is comprised of pileus and stipe.
Aerial part of Agaricus is comprised of pileus and stipe.
What are the wart-like structures below the leaflets of Dryopteris called ?
The wart-like structures below the leaflets of Dryopteris are called sori.
Members of which division of plants are known as amphibious plants?
Plants under division bryophyta are known as amphibious plants.
In which division of plants, seeds develop without formation of fruits?
In gymnosperms, seeds develop without formation of fruits.
Which type of plant body is seen amongst ferns?
Sporophytic plant body is seen amongst ferns.
What is the name of the symbiotic association of fungi and the roots of higher vascular plants?
The symbiotic association of fungi and the roots of higher vascular plants is known as mycorrhiza.
Which division of non-flowering plants possess vascular system?
Plants under division pteridophyta are nonflowering plants, which possess vascular system.
In which group of plants usually many embryos are formed in a single seed?
In gymnosperms, usually many embryos are formed in a single seed.
Which group of plants always show tap root system?
Dicotyledonous plants always show tap root system.
Short Questions and Answers : (2 marks for each question)
What is meant by algae?
The simplest form of autotrophic, aquatic plants, with thallophytic body, made up of mainly eukaryotic cells, without any tissue system and having unicellular sex organs, are called algae. Example-Spirogyra sp., Chara sp.
What is thallophyta?
Thallophyta is a plant group, that includes those plants having flat thallus-like body, which are not divisible into root, stem and leaf. Example-Algae.
What are bryophytes?
Bryophytes are simple non-flowering plants without true roots, stems, leaves and vascular tissues. They grow in moist soil but perform fertilisation in water and maintain gametophytic generation throughout the major part of their life cycle. Example-Pogonatum sp., Sphagnum sp.
What are pteridophytes?
Pteridophytes are terrestrial non-flowering plants having true roots, stems, leaves and vascular tissues. They maintain sporophytic generation throughout the major part of their life cycle.
Example — Marsilea sp., Selaginella sp.
What are gymnospenns?
The group of plants, in which no fruit is produced, so that the seeds remain exposed and usually many embryos form inside a seed, are called gymnosperms or naked-seeded plants, where endosperm forms before fertilisation. Example — Cycas sp., Pinas sp.
What are anglesperms?
The flowering plants, in which fruits develop from flowers and seeds remain within the fruits, are called angiosperms. Here, the endosperm forms after fertilisation. Example — Solanum tuberosum (potato), Malus domestica (apple).
What is meant by dicotyledonous plants?
The angiospermic plants, in which seeds have two cotyledons, show tap root system and have reticulate venation in leaves, are called dicotyledonous plants. Example-Mangifera indica (mango), Pisum sativum (pea).
What is meant by monocotyledonous plants?
The angiospermic plants, in which seeds have only one cotyledon, show adventitious root system and have parallel venation in leaves, are called monocotyledonous plants. Example-Cocos nucifera (coconut), Triticum aestivum (wheat).
What are rhizoids?
Rhizoids are branched, colourless, very fine thread-like structures growing from the base of the gametophores or the ventral side of the thallus of mosses, which help to absorb water and minerals from soil and affix the plant with the subtratum.
What is a gametophore?
The gametophore is a structure, present in the gametophytic generation of mosses and ferns, which bears the male and female sex organs, known as antheridium and archegonium respectively.
What are ramenta? What is the function of ramenta?
(i) Ramenta: Some species of ferns have several thin, brown scale or hair-like projections upon the young shoots and the petioles of leaves. These are called ramenta.
(ii) Function: Ramenta prevent the ferns from drying out by reducing the rate of transpiration in arid condition.
What is circinate vernation?
The manner in which immature leaves of ferns are tightly curled so that the tender growing tip of the frond remains protected within a coiled structure, is called circinate vernation. This is commonly seen in Dryopteris sp.
Long Questions and Answers : (5 marks for each question)
Classify plant kingdoms with the help of a chart and example.
Classification of plant kingdom with examples
Mention the similarities between algae and fungi. Discuss their differences.
Similarities between algae and fungi
The similarities between algae and fungi are as follows-
- Both are eukaryotic, unicellular or multicellular.
- Both forms are thallophytic, that is their body is not differentiated into roots, stems and leaves.
- Both algae and fungi have distinct cell wall outside their cells.
- Both algae and fungi are devoid of vascular tissues.
Differences between algae and fungi
|Mostly aquatic, few grow on moist soil
|All are heterotrophic, mostly saprophytic, some are parasitic
|3. Photosynthetic pigments
|Chlorophyll and other pigments
|Photosynthetic pigments absent
|4. Main component of cell wall
|Main component is cellulose
|Main component is chitin
|5. Stored food
|Stored food is starch and other polysaccharides
|Stored food is glycogen
|Centrally large and few vacuoles present
|Small and many vacuoles present
Mention the similarities between bryophytes and pteridophytes. Discuss the differences between them.
Similarities between bryophytes and pteridophytes
The similarities between bryophytes and pteridophytes are as follows-
- Both bryophytes and pteridophytes are non-flowering plants.
- Both show distinct gametophytic and sporophytic generations in their respective life cycles.
- Both require water for fertilisation.
- Both carry out asexual reproduction by means of spores.
- The structure of male and female gametangia are alike in both bryophytes and pteridophytes. Reproductive cells are externally covered by sterile cells.
Differences between bryophytes and pteridophytes
|Body differentiated into stem and leaves, true roots absent
|Body differentiated into true roots, stem and leaves
|2. Main plant type
|Main plant type is gametophytic
|Main plant type is sporophytic
|3. Vascular tissue
|True vascular tissues are absent
|Xylem and phloem are present
|Moist soil and rocky surfaces
|Cool, shady but dry surfaces
|True root system absent, root-like rhizoids are present
|True root system is present
|Sperms multi flagellate
Mention the similarities between gymnosperms and angiosperms. Write the differences between them.
Similarities between gymnosperms and angiosperms
Similarities between gymnosperms and angiosperms are as follows—
- Both gymnosperms and angiosperms have their bodies differentiated into true roots, stems and leaves.
- Both the types of plants develop seeds after fertilisation.
- In both forms, the ovules remain covered by integument.
- Both gymnosperms and angiosperms have well-organised vascular bundle.
Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms:
|Perennial and evergreen
|Annual, biennial or perennial, evergreen or deciduous
|2. Vascular tissue
|Xylem and phloem are devoid of trachea and companion cells respectively
|We developed xylem and phloem present
|3. Flower and fruit
|Flowers lack ovary, therefore no fruit formation occurs
|Flowers have ovary, which matures into fruit
|Seeds remain exposed
|Seeds remain inside the fruit
|More than one embryo originates in ovule, but only one matures
|Single embryo is formed in an ovule
|Endosperm forms before fertilisation
|Endosperm forms after fertilisation
Mention the differences between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Write the scientific names of two monocot and two dicot plants.
Differences between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants
|Annual, mostly herbs, rarely shrubs and trees
|Perennial, majority are trees, but several herbs and shrubs are also present
|Seed has single cotyledon
|Seed has two cotyledons
|Isobilateral, with parallel venation
|Dorsiventral, with reticulate venation
|Generally unbranched and less woody
|Well-branched and mostly woody
|Adventitious roots present
|Taproot system present
|6. Vascular bundle
|Numerous and scattered vascular bundles in stem
|Few vascular bundles in stem, arranged in circles or rings
Scientific name of monocot and dicot plants
The scientific names of two inonocot plants are Oryza sativa (rice) and Zea mays (maize) and the scientific names of two dicot plants are Mangifera indica (mango) and Pisum sativum (pea)
Mention the main characteristic features of algae, Give two examples.
Characteristic features of algae
The main characteristic features of algae are as follows—
- Algae are unicellular or multicellular aquatic thallophytes.
- These are autotrophic, i.e. they can synthesise their own food within the body, due to the presence of chlorophyll.
- Algal cell wall is mainly composed of cellulose and pectin.
- Algal cells have variously shaped chloroplasts, which contain photosynthetic pigments and stored food like starch.
- Sub-cellular micro compartments, called pyrenoids, are present in the chloroplasts.
- Algae perform vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction.
Examples of algae
Two examples of algae are Spirogyra maxima and Volvox globator.
Mention the main characteristic features of bryophytes. Give two examples. Characteristic features’ of bryophytes
The main characteristic features of bryophytes are as follows:
- Bryophytes are green, photosynthetic and non-vascular plants.
- Plants are either thallus-like or have indistinguishable stem-like caulid, leaf-like phyllids and rhizoids in place of roots.
- The plant body of bryophytes is gametophytic.
- Sporophyte depends upon the gametophyte for survival.
- Both male and female reproductive organs are multicellular.
- Alternation of generation is distinct and unequal, where gametophytic generation dominates over the sporophytic generation.
Examples of bryophytes
Two examples of bryophytes are Riccia fluitans and Funaria hygrometrica.
Mention the main characteristic features of pteridophytes. Give two examples.
Characteristic features of pteridophytes:
The main characteristic features of pteridophytes are as follows-
- Pteridophytes are muiticellular, non-flowering plants with vascular tissue system.
- Vascular system is composed of xylem and Marsilea minuta phloem.
- Vegetative body is differentiated into roots, stems and leaves.
- The independent plant body is sporophytic.
- Sporophylls or spore bearing leaves either arrange themselves to form cones or remain free as compound leaves.
- Alternation of generation is distinct and unequal, where sporophytic generation dominates over the gametophytic generation.
Examples of pteridophytes:
Two examples of pteridophytes are Dryopteris filix-mas and Marsilea minuta.
Mention the main characteristic features of gymnosperms. Give two examples.
Characteristic features of gymnosperms:
The main characteristic features of gymnosperms are as follows-
- Gymnosperms are perennial sporophytic trees.
- Body differentiated into roots, stems and leaves.
- Leaves are of two types-dry brown scale leaves and green foliage leaves. Foliage leaves are either needle-like or compound.
- Vascular system present but xylem and phloem are devoid of trachea and companion cells respectively.
- Fruit absent, that is why seeds remain exposed or naked.
- Seeds bear more than one embryo, a feature typically known as polyembryony.
- In gymnosperms, endosperm develops before fertilisation.
Examples of gymnosperms:
Two examples of gymnosperms are Pinus roxburghii and Gnetum ula.
What is a sorus? What is cone or strobilus? Give the differences between cryptogams and phanerogams.
The small, kidney-shaped, wart-like structure which grows on the ventral surface of the leaflets of ferns, to hold the sporangia within it, is called sorus.
Cone or Strobilus
In most gymnosperms, a number of male or female reproductive organs or sporangia-bearing, scale-like structures arrange closely around a central axis to form a cone-shaped or oval structure. This is called cone or strobilus.
Differences between cryptogams and phanerogams:
|Do not produce seeds
|2. Vascular system
|May or may not be present
|3. Need for water
|External water serves as medium
|External water is not required
|4. Evolutionary status
|These are primitive type
|These are advanced type
Mention the main characteristic features of angiosperms. Give two examples.
Characteristic features of angiosperms
The main characteristic features of angiosperms are as follows-
- Angiosperms are either herbs, shrubs or trees.
- Their life span varies from annual, biennial to perennial.
- Vascular tissue system is highly developed, composed of all components of xylem and phloem.
- Flowers develop ovary, which matures into fruit. Seeds remain protected inside the fruit.
- Seeds may have one or two cotyledons.
- In angiosperms, endosperm develops after fertilisation.
Examples of angiosperms
Two examples of angiosperms are Cocos nucifera and Mangifera indica.
Mention the main characteristic features of monocotyledonous plants. Give two examples.
Characteristic features of monocotyledonous plants
The main characteristic features of monocotyledonous plants are as follows-
- Monocots are mostly herbs, a few are trees.
- Their life span varies from annual to perennial.
- Their seeds have a single cotyledon.
- Their roots are adventitious.
- Stems are unbranched and leaves are isobilateral with parallel venation.
- Fruit coat remains fixed with the seed coat.
Examples of monocotyledonous plants
Two examples of monocotyledonous plants are Oryza sativa and Zea mays.
Mention the main characteristic features of dicotyledonous plants. Give two examples.
Characteristic features of dicotyledonous plants
The main characteristic features of dicotyledonous plants are as follows-
- Dicots are mostly trees, some are herbs and shrubs.
- Their life span varies from annual, biennial to perennial.
- Their seeds have two cotyledons.
- Well developed tap root system is present in these type of plants.
- Stems are branched and leaves are dorsiventral with reticulate venation.
- Fruit coat and seed coat remain separate.
Examples of dicotyledonous plants
Two examples of dicotyledonous plants are Artocarpus heterophyllus and Pisum sativum.