Detailed explanations in West Bengal Board Class 8 History Book Solutions Chapter 9 Constitution of India: Democratic Structure and Citizen’s Rights offer valuable context and analysis.
WBBSE Class 8 History Chapter 9 Question Answer – Constitution of India: Democratic Structure and Citizen’s Rights
1. Find the odd one out
a. Secular, Sovereign, capitalistic, democratic.
b. President, Vice president, Prime Minister, Governor.
c. Municipality, Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, Bidhan Sabha.
d. Dr Rajendra Prasad, Dr Sarvapalli Radha Krishan, Jahwarlal Nehru, B. R. Ambedkar.
B. R. Ambedkar.
e. 15th August, 26th January, 26th November, 20th March (on the basis of Indipendent India)
2. Identify which of the following statesment are right or wrong.
a. The constitution is a collection of laws of Judiciary.
b. The Chief architect of the Indian constitution is B. R. Ambedkar.
c. The President is the actual administrator of India.
d. The Chief Minister presides over the Rajya Sabha.
e. West Bengal has a three tire Panchayat system.
3. Answer berilly (30-40 words)
Why was a need felt for drawing up the constitution of India at the time of achieving freedom?
The constitution is a collection of laws. By this law the power of Government, the relation between the Government and the citizens are directed. When India was under the British rule the administration was run by the law of British Government. But after independence the necessity of the law felt for India and Indians for adminstrate the country.
Explain the significance of the word ‘democratic’ in the constitution of India.
India is a democrate country. The representatives of the Parliament who are the owner of sovereign power of India, are elected by the adult people of India irrespectively cast, creed, religion, sex. The President of India is elected by the elected representatives of the Parliament. He is the nominal head of the country.
Why is India ealled a secular state?
In our constitution it is mentioned that: India is a secular state. There is no state religion in India. Every one had the right to pratice or recieve any religion of his own choise. The state does not interfere in anyone’s religious belief or favour any religion. But in case of law and order of pubic interest the state can restrict on this right.
What initiatives were taken up by Mahatma Gandi to establish the rights of the Dalits?
In the non-cooperation propasal Gandhiji mentioned that it was necessary to abolish untouchibility to achieve ‘Swaraj’. He organised a movement for the right of ‘Harijan’ to enter the temples. According to Puna Pact, instead of seperate eletoral representation, 151 seats was sought to reserved for the scheduled caste within the format of common eletoral represention.
What fundamental rights have been mentioned in the constitution of India?
According to constitution several Fundamental rights have granted for Indian citizen. These are-Right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and’education right and right to constitutional remedies. These rights are enforced by law’ but are not unrestricted.
4. Write in your own words (120-160 words)
Explain the Preamble to the constitution of India. How do you think the word ‘Republic’ mentioned in the Preamble has been actulally realised?
It is said in the Preamble of the Indian constitution that : “WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secured all its citizens : ‘JUSTICE, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and opportunity and to promote among them all–FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation, IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November 1949, do HERE BY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
In the constitution it is said that the people of India have adopted, enacted and given to themselves this constitution. So the people have the souvereign power. The constitution which is adopted by the people, should be abide by the people. In the Preamble it is mentioned Tthat India is a soverign democratic, republic. Soverign means India is the supreme in external policies.
The word democracy means the representative, elected by people on the basis of universal adult franehise run the government. The ward republic denotes the absence of heriditary monarch. The word ‘secular’ means India has no state religion. The state does not interfare in the religious belief of the citizen. Every citizen is free to practice their own religion.
In 45th amendment it is said that ‘socilist republic means a social condition where there is an opportitunily to be free from any sort of social, political and economical exploitation. In reality social and economical equality has not been established yet. It is not so easy.
Discuss the activites of the Prime Minister of India and the Chief Minister of a State. What are their respective roles in the governance of the country and the state?
In the parliamentary democratic system of India the most important position is hold by Prime Minister. He is the head of central government. He is the real head and the directer of the state. His function is vast as welt as very significant. According to his advice the President appoints the other ministers. In reality the council of ministers is of the Prime Minister. He distributes the departments among the ministers. If he finds their activities. If he finds that the activites of any minister effects badly the government policy he could make him resigned.
He presides over the meeting of the the council of Ministers. If there is conflist between two ministers, he solves the problem by giving solution. He is between President and the council of Minister. He plays an important role in efecting the president of Lok Sabha or the members of different Committee. He has an enormous power as the leader of majority party. His note is also very important to determine the foreign relation. His personality reflects on the nation as the leader of the people.
Chief Minister is the head of the state as Priminister in Centre. After the election of state the Governor appoints the leader of the majority party of Rajya Bidhan Sabhas as the Chief Minister. According to his choice ministers are appointed by the Governer. Chief Minister is the leader of council of ministers of state. He acts as a link between the Governor and the state council of Minister. The President acts according to this advice of the stuff minister in case of appointing the President and the members of different committees. Chief Minister is the leader of the people.
How is the idea of democracy emphasized through local self-government in West Bengal? Discuss with reference to your local experience.
The local self government of West Bengal has three tire-Gram Panchayet, Panchayet Samity, Zila Parishad. Through the three tired Panchayet system the democratic rights, social dignity and economic development have been ensured. Decentralisation of power can be possible through Panchayet system. The members of the Panchayets are local people. They understand and realise the local people. They take decision. They also take part for the welfare of the local people actively.
Through the Panchayet system the establishment of democracy in rural area can he possible. Local people can express their views. They assist the administrators of Panchayet to solve the different problems. To fulfill the different plans the local labour and the element of production are used. The source of employment is increasing. Panchayet also helps the Goverment, to solve the local problem. The rural people take part in self dependent protects. In this case 100 days work can be mentioned.
How does Indian constitution secure the rights of women? How important do you think economic independence is necessary for social empowerment of women?
The equal rights for men and women is secure in our constitution. But it does not occur in reality. Men and women are not equally treated in our society. In our family the women become victim of humiliation and ignorence. Besides girl trafficking, dowry system, torture after marriage for exces dowery, killing of bride are keeping on.
Many policies have been taken to step the inhuman practice against the women. Many acts have been passed to protect them and their rights. These acts are belonged to constitution. Equal rights are recognised in the field of education and the woman education is emphasized. Equal some rights and facilities are secured for the women in the constitution. Education makes them conscious about their own rights. In 2005 the equal rights of men and women on land and property has been constitutionally secured.
In 2005 a step to protect the women from torture and deprivation is taken by the prevention of Domestic violence act. If a women becomes a victim of persecution with in family, she can seek protection under this Act. Not only physical or mental dertune financial torture has been included in act. The opperased woman can file petition before the Chief Judicial Magistrate for remedial action.
Inspite of the existence of so many act the women are still deprived and humilated in any field of society. Making law and application of law are not same. Spreading of women education and financial independence is very much essential for the women of all classes.
What rule had been played by the Indian constitution for development of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Backward classes?
There is no definition of ‘Backwards class’ in Indian constitution. But the President can prepare a list of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe after consulting with states. The Government subsequently fixed some criteria for backward classes. According to the usage of Hindu Society those who placed in the lower level of the society, who are mostly beyond the periphery of education, who are poorly representable in government service, who are least significantly involved in commerce and business are called Backward classes.
In the Indian constitution the word minority is defined in terms of numerical strength within the society. It is not placed in the idea of community. The constitution has granted the right to religious freedom for the minority. The state never could impose the culture of the majority on that of the minority. The government could not pass any law about it. The constitution has recognised their rights of the minorities on the basis of languiage. For example the Olchiki script of the Sanlhas, is given duewecognition by the constitution.
The constitution has provided arrangement for education of the children of minorities in their own mother tongue. All the citizens, irrespective of religion caste conimunity are entitled to get facilities in government and government aided educational institutions.
5. Imagine and write (in 200 words)
Suppose the local residents of your area have elected you as their representative to your Gram Panchayet or Municipality. What steps would you take for the development of your area?
I am a representative of Municipality. The people have elected me with great expectation. They expect that the various problems of their locality will be solved by me. So my main duty is to develop my locality. Though my locality is a municipal area but it is not completely a town. Most of the people here are not conscious of their social duties and all types of civic rights. They often throw garbages here and there. I shall make an arrangement so that they place garbage in a particular place.
There will be also an arrangement to remove the garbage daily. The drain shall be cleaned regularly. The insecticide will be spreyed over the drains to barnish the mosquitoes and flies. In this way the diseases could be stopped spreading. I shall be careful so that the water can not be wasted. Everyone should be careful to close the tap properly for not wasting water.
The roads and streets will be repaired where those ore damaged. I shall develop the drainage system of the locality. Some new drains will be made where it is needed. I will regularly meet the people and try to know their problems and make them happy with my solution.
Suppose you are a teacher. What programme would you take up along with the students of your school to carry out together the fundamsntal duties mentioned im the constitution? Prepare a draft of the programme.
- We all obey our constitution and respect its ideals and various constitutional instructions, the national flag and national anthem.
- We shall try our best to uphold and protect the sovereingnty, unity and integrity of India.
- We shall promate hormony and the spirit of common brotherhood by removing the discrimination of religion, linguistic and regional diversity. We will be careful about the dignity of woman.
- We will safegurd the public property and abjure violence
- We shall be always ready to defend the country and render national service when it is necessary.
Class 8 History Chapter 9 Question Answer West Bengal Board – Constitution of India: Democratic Structure and Citizen’s Rights
Multiple Choice Questions & Answers :
India got freedom after-
i) 100 years
ii) 150 years
iii) 190 years
iv) 200 years
iii) 190 years
Constituent Assembly was set up in-
i) March 1946
ii) July 1946
iii) August 1945
iv) April 1946
ii) July 1946
The constitution was adoptedin the constituent Assembly on-
i) 26th November, 1949,
ii) 26th November, 1950
iii) 20th November, 1949
iv) 26th December, 1949
i) 26th November, 1949
The largest constitution of the world has-
The system of electing rulers from among the people is called –
Many villages together form one –
The committee drafted the constitution consisted-
i) five members
ii) three members
iii) six members
iv) seven members
iv) seven members
In our constition directive principles of state policy has been taken from the constition of-
i) U. S. A.
ii) U. K.
The members of Rajya Sabha are slscted fora term of –
i) three years
ii) four years
iii) five years
iv) six years
iv) six years
The Governor is appointed by-
i) prime minister
iii) judges of Supreme Court
iv) speaker of Lakesabha
The Panchyat System in West Bengal has
i) three tiers
ii) four tiers
iii) two tiers
iv) five tiers
i) three tiers
A member of the municipality is called-
State whether True or False:
1. The Parliament of India is a bi-cameral legislature.
2. To be a member of the Lok Sabha one should be at least 20 years old.
3. The President of India is elected for a period of five years.
4. India has no state religion.
5. The first Chief Minister of West Bengal was Atulya Ghosh.
6. Governor is the head of the state government.
7. In West bengal Legislative Council has been abolished in 1960 .
8. The Lok Sabha is presided over by the deputy speaker.
9. The second tier of the Panchayat system in West bengal is Panchayat Samiti.
10. The tenure of the Municipality is five years.
Fili in the blanks :
1. The lowest but most important level of administration in West bengal is ____.
2. The second tier of the Panchayat system in West Bengal is ____.
3. In 1932 the dalits were granted separate electoral representation as ______.
4. In 2005 the constitution validated equal rights of ______ to land and property as enjoyed by men.
5. The Telengana movement yielded a number of _______.
6. In North India the _____ movement was organised to protect the dense woodlands from the ruin.
7. The Tebhaga movement spread in many parts of the undivided _____.
8. The citizens of India are given the right to safeguard their ______ alphabet and culture.
9. The tenure of Zila Parishad is for _____ years.
10. The Chief Minister is the head of the council of _______.
Match the column A with column B.
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|Dr. B. R. Ambedkar||Local Self-Government|
|Federal State||Indian constitution|
|Column A||Column B|
|Dr. B. R. Ambedkar||Indian Constitution|
|Zilla Parishad||Local Self-Government|
Answer in short (within 30-50 words)
What chracteristics do you notice in the administrative system of India?
India is a large country having a single central government. Again every state has its won government. Those are called state governments. Both the governments are elected by people. Central government is elected by the whole people of the country. State government is elected by the people of the concerned state.
What are Federal system and constitution?
The system of administration which recognises powers of both the central and state governments, is called Federal system.
What are the functions of the government?
Work of the government is the administration of the country like initiatives for welfare of the people, collection of taxes, revenues, to preserve sovereignty of the country. Maintaining peace and developments are also the responsibility of the government.
What do you understand by Local self Government?
Indian people not only elect rulers, they also participate in the rule of the country. Direct participation mearı “Local Self Government”. ‘Self’ means ‘own’ Where people are under themselves, that patern of administration is called ‘Local Self Government’.
In common term how election is described? At what interyals election is held in India? What are the relation between election of government and democracy?
- Election is a procedure in which people elected governments by casting votes.
- According to right of the franchise, election is held after every five years.
- The government of India is democrat, because the people of India themselves elect the government.
4. Answer in details
Why India is called democratic and federal? What do you think about the role of the constitution in the administration of the country?
India, the country we live in, has a government. All sovereign countries have their own governments. India is also a sovereign country. Now people of a country decide who or which ones
will rule the country. ‘Democracy’ denotes selecting rulers by the people from among themselves. India is a democratic country, because the people of India decide who or which ones will rule the country through election.
The system of administration which recognises powers of both the central and state governments, is called Federal Administartion. So the Indian government is Federal because, both the central and state governments are in the system of federal administration.
India has a written constitution and that is the largest one in the world. Chief-architect of this constitution is Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. In the constitution at India the right of the people to select their own governmen: is recognised. The constitution describes what powers the central and state governments will citjcy.
What are the durations of the government? Which part performs what functions? Why judiciary is kept separate?
The durations of the Indian government is five years.
There are three functionaries of a government. ‘Legislature Department’ which enacts laws for administration of the country.
‘Executive’ which administers the country according to laws framed.
‘Judiciary’, whose functions are to overall wheather the country is being ruled according to law framed, and wheather the rights of the people are preserved ‘judiciary’ is authorised to take actions against those who violate laws of the land.
In all the countries judiciary is kept separated from the legislature and executive. This arrangement is just open to justice. In short, it is called the ‘Theory of separation of powers’. ‘separation’ means ‘disjoinning’. This policy was adopted just to keep Democracy imtact. Montesquieu, a French philosopher, speaks of the theory for the first time.
What are the functions of Municipalities and Gram Panchayats?
In a small towns and cities there are municipalities. The word ‘Poura’ came from ‘pura’ which in sanskrit means city. Residents of those towns and cities of eighteen years and above elect members of municipalities by votes. They are representatives of towns and cites. One of them is elected the chief of the administration. Peoples welfare, public health, developments and administration are the jobs of the municipalities. Supply of drinking water, building of roads, pollution control and such other things are done by the municipalities which also take initiatives of establising school, hospitals, spreading education, development of public health.
Like towns and cities Panchayat system exist in rural areas. Village people elected members of Panchayats by votes. One of them is elected ‘Panchayat pradhan’. All out developments of rural areas are the job of the panchayats. Supply of drinking water, building roads, schools, health centers, afforestation are all the jobs of panchayats.
What are the fundamental rights mentioned in the constitution?
The Indian Constitution enumerates six fundamental rights of the citizens. The rights are: Right to equality, Right to freedom, Right against exploitation, Right to freedom of religion. Cultural and Educational Right, and Right to constitutional remedies. These rights are beyond the scope and authority of executive and legislative departments. Hence, these rights which are guaranteed by the constitution are called Fundamental Rights. Any citizen can approach a court of law for violation of the fundamental right.
What are the fundamental duties mentioned in the constitution?
It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to-
Abide by the constitution, respect its ideals and various constitutional institutions, the national flag and national anthem
Cherish and follow the noble ideals of our national struggle for freedom
Uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India
Defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so
Promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or class diversities and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women
value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture
protect and improve the natural environment and to have compassion for living creatures
develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform > safeguard public property and abjure violence
strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity for holistic development of the nation
provide opportunities for education, by parents or their guardians, to child or ward between the age of 5-14 years as the case mav be.