Detailed explanations in West Bengal Board Class 8 History Book Solutions Chapter 5 Reaction of Colonial Rule: Co-operation and Revolt offer valuable context and analysis.
WBBSE Class 8 History Chapter 5 Question Answer – Reaction of Colonial Rule: Co-operation and Revolt
Thinak and Find –
1. Match column A with B
|Column A||Column B|
|Hindu Pattriot||Last Mughal Emperor|
|Bahadur Shah Zafar||Movement against Sati|
|Raja Rammohan Ray||Brahmo Samaj|
|Bijay Krishna Goswami||Sidhu and Kanhu|
|Santhal Rebellion||Indigo Rebellion|
|Column A||Column B|
|Hindu Pattriot||Indigo Rebellion|
|Bahadur Shah Zafar||Last Mughal Emperor|
|Raja Rammohan Ray||Movement against Sali|
|Bijay Krishna Goswami||Brahmo Samaj|
|Santhal Rebellion||Sidhu and Kanhu|
2. Find the odd one out
a. Pandita Ramabai, Begum Rokeya, Sakhawat Hossain, Sister Subhalaxmi, Rani Laxmibai.
b. Atmaram Pandurang, Mahadev Govinda Ranade, Jotirao Fhule, Birshalíngam Pantulu.
c. Rammohon Ray, Devendranath Tagore, Keshab Chandra Sen, Dayananda Sarawati. is
d. Bahadur Shah Zafar, Nana Saheb, Titumir, Mangal Pandey
3. Answer briefly (30-40 words)
Who are called ‘middle class’ in colonial India?
Those people who are placed at the inter mediate stage of fenancial solvency became to be known as ‘middle class’. In Bretish India the middle class people coming from the upper class segment of the Hindu Community were called Bhadralok. Exposure to western education produced this new educated middle class to initiate social reforms.
Against which social customs did the young Bengal group protest?
The young Bengal Gruup considered the old social customs and superstitions were not sustainable by judicious reasoning. They opposed such superstitions and customs. The yound students who raised thier voice against the old customs and determined to change the society were called ‘Young Bengal.’ Henry Louis Vivian Derozio, the teacher of Hindu College, inspired them for free thinking. He set up the Academic Accosiation and opposed the existing caste system, child marriage, polygamy etc.
What was the aim of the reforms of Sir Syed Ahmed?
Sir Syed Ahmed realised that the causes of the back’sardness of Muslim society were be religious regidity and the hatred towards Western edrcation. Without Western education the muslims never could occupy the equal position with Hindus nd n…., indus would enjo the facilities of British rule. Therefore he gave effort to reform the Muslim Society and spread Weste…. Antion among them.
Against whom did Titumir revolt?
At Narkelberia village of Barasat Mir Nishar Ali or Titumir constructed a bamboo fort and started a movement against local landlords, Indigo plants and also the British require. The bamboo fort is the symbol of his revolt.
4. Write in your own words (120-160 words)
Analyse the main similarities between the movements against the practice of Sati and movement for Widow Remarriage. What steps did Vidyasagar initiate for education of women?
The abolishing of Sati custom and the widow remarriage both were social reforms. The tremendors system of Sati custom which encouraged the widow women to die with her dead husband and to burn her in pyre, prevailed our Bengal in nineteenth Century. Raja Rammohan started his reform movements against ‘Sati’ custom. Taking examples from diferent Hindu siripture he proved that the ‘Sati’ custom was not mentioned in any Hindu regious book or scripture. He oppoosed the ruthless custom in his book ‘Prabartak-ONibortak-er Sambad. Due to the influnce of his movement ‘Sati’ custom was prohibited by introducing an Act in 1829. But the inhuman practice did not stop altogether.
Similarly in the middle of the nineteenth century Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar organised a movement for remarriage of widows. He published a booklet with reasoning in favour of the remarriage and wrote essay in different magazines. He collected the signatures of the mass and appealed to the government. He had to face a great difficult situation for the orthodox head of the society. But for his strict persofility and determination all obstruction was removed. Hindu widosv remarriage Act was introduced in 1856 by Lord Canning. Widow re-marriages were arranged through his personal eccorts but it did not gain any popularity at all among various section of the society.
Vidyasagar played an important role in the spreading of women education. He established a large number of school for girls in different parts of Bengal and encouraged women for education.
What was the main aim oi the Brahmo Movement? Analyse the limitations of the Brahmo movement.
Rammohan Roy established Atmiya Sabha in 1815 for social reformation, in 1828 Bramho Samaj organised from Atmiya Sabha. When Rammohan went to abroad Debendranath Tagore took the charge of Brahmo Samaj. He founded Tatwabodhini Sabha and published ‘Tatwabodhini Patrika.’ These became the arms of reformation movement. In 1853 Keshab Chandra Sen took the responsiliting of Brahmo Samaj. But Brahmo Samaj was divided into two because of the different views of these two leadens.
In case of social, religious and educational reformation Brahmo Samaj started a new era. It played an important role in national movement and social service. Brahmo Samaj faught against polygamy, dowry system, child marriage and in favour of remarriage of widow, spreading of women education etc. The Brahmo movement spered over the districts from the educated society in Calcutta.
The movement was confined in the elite classes of the society. The liberal outlook of Brahmo could not move the common people. Brahmo movement did not spread in rural areas due to its limitaion of power. But orthodex, superstitious people were not mentally prepared to welcome their idea.
Make a comperative analysis of the ‘Santhal Rebllion’ and Indigo Reblellion. What was the role of Hindu Patiot in both cases?
‘Santhal Rebellion’ was one of the most important revolt against the exploitation of colonial rule, money leader, Zamindar, Izaradar etc. The Santhals started farming after clearing the forest and stones of forest of hilly area. They thought that as they turned the land which was unfit for farming into agricultural land, they were the real owner of the land. But the Government introduced permanent settlement system in their land and imposed revenue. They were compelled to pay tax. The zamindar forced them to work without any wages. The staffs of the zamindar deprived them in many ways. For these reasons the Santhals revolted.
The Indigo rebellion was also occured for protesting against the colonial government, money lenders, indigo planters. They forced the farmers to take loan and to cultivate indigo and for this purpose they tortured them, harassed them. If they became disagree even they were killed. The grudge of the peasant increased in proportion with to return. The paddy or tobacco fields were used for indigo plantation. As the result the production of rice decreased. The income of the peasant became less. They appealed to the court for just but all in vien. They were more tortured for that.
The educated Bengalee expressed their views against the Santhal rebellion but Harish Chandra Mukhapadhya, the editor of the ‘Hindui Patriot, published the causes behind the Santhal rebellion in his paper. He demanded punishment for those who led the santthal into rebellion. He wrote essys against the indigo planter and in favour of the peasants in his paper. He mentioned that the indigo farmers became loser than to be gained.
Do you think the Rovolt of 1857 was merely a ‘Sepoy Mutiny’? Give reasons for your answer:
The revolt of 1857 was merely a Sepoy ‘Mutiny’. It is because they played leading role in this revolt. There was the lack of complete plan. This revolt did not spread all over India and the people of all classes did not join in this revolt. On the other hand the Sepoys dischared Bahadur Sah as the emperor of India but he was not loyal to the object of the revolt. All kings and rulers did not get involved in the revolution. The rulers who joined in this revolt were busy to fulfill their selfinterest.
Inspite of above all it is noted that at first the revolt was limited to the sepoy only but later it gradually transferred itself into a ‘national revolution’. A great part of Indian mass participated in the revolt. The people of different religions, casts, creed, clases joined in this movement. In some part of India like Madhya Pradesh, Delhi, Ayodhya, the revolt assumed the shape of national movement. Some places became free from British rule for some days. So it can not be said the Revolt of 1857 was merely a Sepoy Mutiny.
5. Imagine and write ( 200 words)
Imagine you have met Rammmohan Roy and Iswarchandra Vidyasagar. Write an imaginary dialogue between them and yourself on abolition of Sati and introduction of widow remarriage.
Conversation with Rommohan-
I : What a good luck, here is you. I have just read your essay on ‘Sati’- “Prabartak-ONibartak-er Sambad.” I like it very much. You with the help of defferent Hindu Sastra you have proved that the custom of ‘Sati’ is not mentioned anywhere.
Rammohan : To turn to death the helpless women for the shake of religion is nothing but a banbarism. I want to stop the custom for ever.
I : Some orthodex, superstitious people now opposing you. But Some people want to eradicate this custom.
Rammohan : I shall make the people to express their views against it. I will not take rest untill the custom will be aboslished.
I: Is it true that you are trying to pass a law about this matter?
Rammohan : Right, I have already discussed with Lord Bentink about the abolition of Sati.
I: Are you hopeful about this matter?
Rammohan : The Govorment is thinking about this matter. An act will be introduced very soon.
I : It will be very good then.
Conversation with Vidyasagar :
I : How lucky I am to meet you! You are so great scholar and social reformer. The way by which you are trying to enact a law conferring of remarriage of the widows. The reasonings which you show in your essay tilled ‘Bidhoba Bibaho’ in favour of widow re-marriage, can not the denyed.
Vidyasagar : But this is not the last word, the people have to receive it by heart. Most of the people admit the reasoning but they have lack of courage.
I : It is a very old custom. But you will the successful surely.
Vidyasagar : This is the greatest work of my life. I will not stop without achieving sucess.
I : Is it true that you are trying to pass a law about it?
Vidyasagar-Right : I have demanded to the Government to enact a law over the widow remarriage. They have advised my reasoning and thinking about the law.
I : I know you will be successful. The way through which you are struggling can never be failed.
Vidyasagar : I hope Lord canning will introduced an act very soon.
I : It will be very good them.
Imagine you are a journalist. You have gained experience and knowledge about the revolt of 1857 by visiting different places of India during the Revolt. Write a newspaper report based on your experience.
Calcutta, February 1859. The revolt that was started by Mangal Pandey in the Barrackpore Cantonment towords the end of March in 1857 have spread out all over India. The revolt has influenced greatly on some places and in other places its influence is less. In Madhya Pradesh, Delhi and Oudh this movement has turned into national revolution. In some places the British has lost their control for few days. But South India remains free from the influence of the revolt. Some parts of North India like Bengal, Punjab, Rajasthan are also free from the impact of the revolt.
At first it was merely a revolt of Sepays, but it Gradually transform into national movement. A large part of Indian people has taken part in this movement. Different people irespective of cast, creed, religion have joined in this rebellion. The British has adopted extremely repressive means to suppress the revolt. The British army recaptuned Delhi by the end of September. They have insprisoned Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah and banished him to Rangoon. Insprite of all these efforts the revolt could not be stopped. The rebels have no enough resources of man power. There are lack of arms and the means of communication are weak. it is an uneqal war.
Class 8 History Chapter 5 Question Answer West Bengal Board – Reaction of Colonial Rule: Co-operation and Revolt
Multiple Choice Questions & Answers :
In British India, the middle class people covering from the upper cast segment of the Hindu community were called-
The newspaper Samachar Darpan was-
Under the editership of Marshman the Bengali monthly news paper-
i) Bengal garet
iii) Hindu Pattriot
To abolish the Sati custom a strong defence was put by-
i) Iswarchandra Vidyasagar
ii) Kesob sen
iii) Rammohan Roy
iv) Debendranath Tagore
iii) Rammohan Roy.
Pandita Rama Bai, came off a Brahmin family, overcoming all social obstacles she marricd a-
Atmiya Sabha was established by-
i) Kesab Chandra Sen
ii) Rammohan Roy
iii) Dayanand Saraswati
iv) Iswarchandra Vidyasagar
ii) Rammohan Roy.
In Santhal rebellion an important role was played by-
ii) Mangal Pandey
iii) Mir Nisar Ali
Dinabandhu Mitra published the opperasive acts of Indigo planters in his drama-
i) Neel Kahin
iii) Neel Bedroho
iii) Neel Darpan
iv) Neel Planter
iii) Neel Darpan.
The proclamation of queen Victoria was decleared on-
i) 5th November
ii) 10th November
iii) 30th November
iv) 1st November
iv) 1st November.
State whether True or False :
1. Drowning girl child in the Ganga could be abolished by law.
2. Lord Wellesley founded ‘Sati’ custom by law.
3. Vidyasagar established several girls’ school with his own money.
4. Vivekananda belived in the independence of women.
5. All of the Muslim society could not accept the reforms of Sayed Ahamed.
6. After Indigo rebellion Indigo commission was set up by Government.
7. Only the Muslim stedents studied in Aligarh Anglo-Oriental College.
8. Sepoy mutiny was known as great revolution.
9. Bishnu Charan biswas was a leader of Santhal rebellion.
10. Wahabi movement was originated in India.
11. Christian Missionary James long was sympathetic to the Indigo uprising.
12. Tho:tsands of Santhals inclufing Sidhu and Kanhu were killed.
13. The European civilians forcefully engaged the Santhals for lying railway tracks.
14. Mohameddan Literery Society was established in Nombay in 1860.
Fill in the blanks :
1. James Angustus Hickey first published a weekly magazine named _____.
2. The founder of Academic Association is _____.
3. The name of the wife of Jyotiva Phule is _____.
4. Arya Samaj was popular in _____ and North West India.
5. In the second half of nineteenth Century various _______ also started in Muslim Society.
6. Among the differnt tribal movement _______ rebellion was the most significant.
7. Wahabi movement sstarted under the guidence of ______ in the Narkelberia area of Barasat.
8. Bishnu Charan Biswas and ____ were the two leaders of Indigo Rebellion.
9. Most of the sepoys of the Bengal army hailed from _____.
10. No single reason can be cited for the _______ of 1857.
11. Due to the impact of the revolt of 1857, the rule of English East India Company in India came to an _____.
12. With effect from 1st November 1859, the government of India Act came into _____.
13. When the revolution was in full swing, unity between the Hindus and Muslims remained _____.
Match column A with B
|Drowning the girl child into the Ganga||1856|
|Lord Bentick||Parthana Samaj of Bombey|
|Remarriage of the widow Act||Satyasadhak Samaj|
|Henry Louis Vivian Derozio||Jaliya fair|
|Assistant inspector of school||Forbidding the satisfaction|
|Atmaram Pandurang||Lord Wellesley|
|Jyotiva Phule||Swami Vivekananda|
|Naba Gopal Mitra||Chand, Bhairab|
|Religious conference in Chicago||The teacher of Hindu college|
|Aligarh movement||Iswarchandra Vidyasagar|
|Santhal Rebellion||Mopals revolt|
|South India||National Revolution|
|Karl Marx||Sayed Ahmed|
|Drowning the girl child into the Ganga||Lord Wellesley|
|Lord Bentick||Forbidding the satisfaction|
|Remarriage of the widow Act||1856|
|Henry Louis Vivian Derozio||The teacher of Hindu college|
|Assistant inspector of school||Iswarchandra Vidyasagar|
|Atmaram Pandurang||Parthana Samaj of Bombey|
|Jyotiva Phule||Satyasadhak Samaj|
|Naba Gopal Mitra||Jaliya fair|
|Religious conference in Chicago||Swami Vivekananda|
|Aligarh movement||Sayed Ahmed|
|Santhal Rebellion||Chand, Bhairab|
|South India||Mopals revolt|
|Karl Marx||National Revolution|
Answer in a sentence :
Who were known as ‘middle class’?
Those placed at the immediate stage of financial solvency was known as middle class.
Who forbade Sati custom and when?
In 1829 Lord Bentinck forbade Sati custom.
Who wrote “Prabartak-O-Nebartak-er Dwitya Sambad”?
Rammohan Roy wrote ‘Prabartak-O-Nebartaker Dwitya Sambad.’
Who enacted a law conferring legality to remarriage of Widow and when?
In 1856 Lord Canning creacted a law conferring legality to remariage of widow.
In which college Vidyasagar was a teacher?
Vidyasagar was a teacher of Sanskrit College.
In which school Derozio was a tencher?
Derozio was a teacher of Hindu college.
What was the full name of Derozio?
The full name of Derozio was Henry Luis Vivian Derozio.
What was the name of the institution founded by Derozio?
The name of the instiution founded by Derozio is Academic Association.
Name some students of Derozio.
The name of some students of Derozio were Ramtanu Lahiri, Parrychand Mitra, Radhanath Sikdar etc.
When was the Prathana Samaj founded at Maharastra?
Prarthana Samaj was founded at Maharastra in 1857.
Why were Jyotiva Phule and Sabitri Devi famous in Maharasthra?
Jyotirao Phule and Sabitri Devi were famous in Maharashtra for their social reform movements.
Who founded ‘Arya Samaj’ and when?
Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded the Arya Samaj in 1857.
Who founded the Jatiya Fair?
Nabagopal Mitra founded Jatiya Fair.
What was the name of the disciple of Ramkrishna Paramhansa Dev?
The name of the disciple of Ramakrishna Paramhansa Dev was Swami Vivekananda.
When was the Mahamedan Literary Society founded?
The Mahamedan Literary Society was founded in 1863.
Under whose leadership Wahabi movement originated?
Wahabi movement originated under the leadership of Abdul Wahab.
By whom the Wahabi movement in India was directed?
The Wahabi movement in India was directed by Sayed Ahmed.
What was the real name of Titumir?
The real name of Titumir was Mir Mesar Ali.
Who built a bamboo fort.
Titumir built a bamboo fort.
Name a leader of Santhal Rebellion.
A leader of Santhal Rebellion was Sidhu.
When did the Indigo Rubellion took place in Bengal?
Indigo Rebellion took place in Bengal in 1859.
Where did Indigo Rebellion start?
Indigo Rebullion Started at Chougacha village in Nadia district.
Where did Sepoy Mutiny start?
Sepoy Mutiny stantit at Barrakpur.
Who was Rani Lakshmi Bai?
Rani Lakshmi Bai was one of a leaders of Sepoy mutiny.
Who was Bahadur Shah?
Bahadur Shah was last Mughal Emperor.
Where and when did Bahadur Shah exile?
Bahadur Shah was exiled to Rangoon in 29th march, 1858.
Who was the first Viceroy of India?
Lord Canning was the first Viceroy of India.
When did the Government of India Act come into force?
From 1st November 1859 the Government of India Act came into force.
Answer in brief :
Write a short note on Ramkrishna Parmahansa.
The role of Ramkrishna Parmhansa Dev in religious and social reformation is very significant. He was the priest of Dakshineswar temple of goddess Kali. He achieved solvation by adapting different ways of different religion. He opposed all superstition and regidity of religion. His famour teaching was ‘Jata mat tata path.” He gave life in Hindu religion. He created a special favour in the minds of the educated urban class of nineteenth century. The mixture of different religious views were in him.
Write a short note on ‘Young Bengal’.
In nineteenth century as the result of spreading Western education a group of youth in Bengal gained a new conciousness by the influence of Western history and philosophy. They revolted against the superstitions and old customs of Hindu religion and society. They were called young Bengal. They express their views aganist various social customs and practices. They all belonged to the rich and elite class. They were inspired by Derozio the teacher of Hindu College in free thinking and reasoning.
In Academic Assotiation founded by Derozio, several discussion and debate took place against the customs of caste system, child marriage, polygamy etc. After the death of Derozio the movement of young Bengal was carried on by his students Parychand Mitra, Radhanath Sikdar, Ramtanu Lahiri etc. They devoted themselves in spreading of modern thinking, scientific knowledge and social reformation. But this movement had no impact on the common people.
Write a short note on Arya Samaj.
In 1875 Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded the Arya Samaj. The Arya Samaj played an important role to revive the society and culture. Arya Samaj conducted a mass movement in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra against caste system and idol worship. They were deeply interested in women education. They supported widow remarriage. The main object of Dayananda was to establish Hinduism based on vedas. He adapted ‘Sudhi’ system to turn the non Hindus to Hindu. But after the death of Dayanand the Arya Samaj movement was continued by Lala Hansaraj. Swami Sradhananda, Guru Dutta.
What is Aligarh movement?
One of the steps taken by Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan for the development of Muslim Society was the establishment of Anglo Oriental College in 1975. This was the greatest credit of him. Later this college changed into a University. In this College arts, science were taught through the medium of English language. Aligarh movement was organished based on this college. Aligarh movement grew practical couscious among the Muslims. Sayed Ahmed trieded to remove the superstition and ignorance from the Muslims by reasoning. He opposed the polygamy, Talak system and Purda system.
Why is the great revolution called the National Revolution?
Several historians called the great revolution as the first Indian Natioanl Revolution. According to Surendranath this revolution first started by the Sepoy but gradually it was transforming itself into a national revolution. A large part of Indian population took part in this revolt. The people of different caste, and religion joined in this revolt. The impact of the rebellion in some places was comparatively more than other places. In Madhya Pradesh, Delhi, Oudh the revolt assumed the shape of national revolution. In some places of India the British rule becase invalid for some days.
What was the direct cause of great revolution.
A discontent was accumulated in the Indian Sepoys for various causes. The British sepoy used ill language toward Indian Sepoy. Besides there was discrimination in salary, promotion and other facilities. Mere over the Indian Sepoys were compelled to go any place for war bylaw.
Crossing the sea was against the Hindu custom. In this situation romour went round that the Cartidge of new Enfieid refles had cow and pig fat are mixed in side them. Before inserting in the refle those cartidge had to be nippled open by teech which was not acceptable to the Sepoys. The sepoys considered it was a conspiracy of the company to violate the purity of their caste and religion. They burst into rage and started to revolt.
Answer in details :
Mention the role of Rammohân and Vidyasagar in reformation movement in Bengal.
Raj.. Rammoha: Roy was known as the ‘first modern man of India’. He played an active role into abcisit various relogious and social susperstitions. He tried to organise a firm movement against caste system and untouchabelity by estabalishing Atmiya Sabha and Brahmo Samaj. He organised a great movement against Sati custom-burning a newly widow with his dead husband. From the Hindu scriptures he proud that Sati custom was not compulsory. He gave reason in support of abolition of Sati in his book ‘Prabartak-O-Nibortak-er Dwitya Sambad’. For the influence of his m. vement the Sati custom was forbidden in 1829 by law. He fought against Caste system, child marriage, polygamy etc. He was active in case of spreading women education, increasing the prestige of women and the establishing the women right on property.
Vidyasagar fought against social superstitions and religious regidity throughout his life. introducing widow remarriage was a fame of his works. He also fought against child marriage, polygamy. He tried his best to spresd woman education. He established many girls’ school in Kolkata and districts. He wrote many text books.
What is the significance of Indigo Rebellion :
Indigo Rebellion was an important point of peasant movement in India. It was a unified movement of different types of peasant. The British company supressed the revolt using extremely respressive means but the confidence of the cultivators could not be broken. Apart from the cultivators the educated middle class people also jained in this movement. This rebellion revealed the picture of economic exploitation of colonial rule. This movement was the pioneer of many other movements and helped to arise nationalism among IndiAnswer: For this rebellion the government was compelled to set up Indigo couissim in 1860. According to the report of the commission the cultivators would not be compelled to cultivate indigo. This rebellioin increased the discontenent and hatred of Indians against British.
Mention four main causes of failure of the great rebellion. Evaluate the great Rebellion.
Lack of planning This revolt was organised regionally. The objective of different leaders were different. There was no specific organisation, no motive. The revolt look place without planning. It was on regional base. There was the gap of communication.
Lack of public support : The people of India did not take part in this revolt. The people who joined had no same objective or interest. Most of the king or federal lord did not join in the revolt. Some king helped the British to supress the revolt. Nana Sahib, Queen of Jhansi, Kunwar Singh joined in this rovolt.
Not one in whole : The revolt did not spread all over India. South India kept away from thiss revolt. Even one part of north India i.g Punjab. Rajasthan did not joint in the revolt.
Lack of arms or warfare : In compare to Indian rebells British were far ahead in arms and warfare.
Evaluation of this great revolt : After the great Revolt of 1857 the nationalism arose in IndiAnswer: The Indians realised the significant of mass movement. The principal of British administration also changed. The queen of England took rule of India in her own hand. By a proclamation, British queen Victoria was declared Queen Emperor of British India. After the revolt the British started to pay attention in economic exploitation of Indıa instead of invation. The number of European soldiers were increased. The control of comanders over the Indian army was densered. In 1861 Indian Council Act was passed. By this Act in State and central legislative assembly number of Indian members were increased.
Write about Wahabi Movement and its impact in Bengal.
One of the leaders of Wahabi Movement in Bengal was Mir Nisar Ali or Titumir. He was influenced by syed Ahmed of Rai Barelli. Titumir started spreading his idealism and formed organisation. He said a Muslim Should obey only Koran not any ‘Peer’ or Moulana. As the result orthodex Muslims were offended with him but poor peasant and weavers of Hindu and Muslim supported him. Titumir organised movement against landlord and Indigo cultivatior with the help of them, on the otherhand zamindar and Indigo cultivator together tried to suppress the revolt. They imposed different types of classes and began to tortune on him. Titumar with his rebells attack the indigo factories and also won.
The main object of the movement was to protect the social and economical interest of dipressed peasants. The aim of Titumir was to save the peasants from the tortune and exploitation of mahajan and Indigo cultivators. So he organised the revolt against them. He influnced the local peasant and weavens greatly. He declared the end of British rule and demanded himself as ‘Badshah’. He was about to collect revenue from Zamindars. The British took the side of Indigo cultivators and the battle between Titumir and the British became inevitable. Finally Titumir was defeated and killed. At very beginning Titumir was a religious reformer but later he became a freedom fighter.
Mention the four main causes of Indigo rebellion. What was the significancet of Indigo rebellion?
The demerits of ‘dadan’ system : The Indigo planter compelled the cultivator to take ‘dadan’ and cultivate indigo. Though the farmers repay the loan the planter’s slyness the loan was never paid.
The misery of the cultivators : As the cultivators were compelled to cultivate indigo in their paddy or tobaco field the production of rice decereased. Therefore the lack of fooder of cattle arose. The money for the cultivate got from cultivation indigo was lesser than that of cultivating rice or tobace.
The greed and fortune of the indigo planters : The indigo planters gave loan to the cultivators and forced to cultivate indigo, otherwise the planters sized their cattle, lashed them or to turned their family members, even killed them. For more profit they started more turture. The hatred and the discontent of the cultivaiors increased proportionally.
Lack of just : The cultivators appealed to the court against the planters but all in vain. They have to bear more and more torture for that appeal. There was close relation between the indigo planters and police or judges. Therefore the depression among farmers began to grow.
Write a note on Santhal Rebellion.
Among the uprising against the extortion of colonial rulers, the most important was the Santhal Rebellion of 1855-56. In the Santhal areas, money lenders and landlords coming from outside, called Dikhu, gradually established their influence. The poor Santhals were subjected to torture and extortion by the Dikus. The Santhals resorted to rebellion to free themselves from the unbearable situation and extortion. Initially they attacked the work places and houses of the money lenders, land-lords and traders.
Latter they organised a rebellion (Hull), in which the most prominent roles were played by Sidhu, Kanhu, Chand and Bhairab. The rebellion spresd over a wide area from Bhagalpur to Rajmahal. To control the situation, the british administration unleashed ruthless attack on the Santhals. Thousand of Santhals including Sidhu and Kanu, were killed. But this rebellion did not go in vain.The British administration became alert to the necessity of safeguarding the interest of the tribals.