# WBBSE Class 9 Geography Solutions Chapter 9 Maps and Scales

Detailed explanations in West Bengal Board Class 9 Geography Book Solutions Chapter 9 Maps and Scales offer valuable context and analysis.

## WBBSE Class 9 Geography Chapter 9 Question Answer – Maps and Scales

Very Short Questions and Answers : (1 mark for each question)

Question 1.
Where was the oldest map found?
Babylon.

Question 2.
What is the small scale representation or model of the earth called?
Globe.

Question 3.
How is the difference between two points determined from a map?
Using a scale.

Question 4.
Who first determined the circumference of the earth?
Eratosthenes.

Question 5.
What is the meaning of ‘cartography’?
The art of drawing maps.

Question 6.
Give an example of a large scale map.
Cadastral map or ‘mauza’ map.

Question 7.
Who was the first geographer to publish an atlas in the 16th century?
Mercator.

Question 8.
What is the ratio of the distance between two points on a map and those two points on the ground known as?
Map scale.

Question 9.
Which instrument indicates the magnetic directions of the earth?
Magnetic compass.

Question 10.
Name the colour used for showing agricultural fields on a map.
Yellow.

Question 11.
Which colour on a map indicates forests?
Green.

Question 12.
The first book of maps was named after which Greek God?
Atlas.

Question 13.
What is a village formally called?
‘Mauza’.

Question 14.
Name an instrument where the vernier scale is seen.
Barometer.

Question 15.
What is the other name of diagonal scale?
Gunter’s scale.

Question 16.
A map is known by what other names?
Drawing / Plan or Model / Image.

Question 17.
What are the central themes of a map?
Various physical and cultural aspects.

Question 18.
How many types of maps are there, based on the type of drawing?
3 types.

Question 19.
What type of map is a wall map?
Small scale map.

Question 20.
What type of map is an economic map?
Cultural.

Question 21.
Which type of map is drawn by using contours?
Topographical map.

Question 22.
Which map shows agricultural land?
Land use map.

Question 23.
What is the other name of fractional scale?
Representative fraction scale.

Question 24.
What is the name of the map drawn according to a plan and used for construction?
Blueprint.

Question 25.
What is the meaning of the symbol ‘N’ on a map?
North direction.

Question 26.
Which type of map shows hills, mountains, rivers, etc.?
Physical map.

Question 27.
Which type of map shows the location of a country or state?
Political map.

Question 28.
What are those maps called which depict physical and cultural features?
Thematic maps.

Question 29.
Which type of map shows the characteristics of soil?
Soil map.

Question 30.
Which scale is used to compare two units?
Comparative scale.

Question 31.
Give an example of a quantitative map.
Population density map of India.

Question 32.
Give an example of a medium scale map?
Topographical map.

Question 33.
By which colour are roads and settlements shown in a topographical map?
Red.

Question 34.
What do the figures on the left side of a fractional scale indicate?
Map distance.

Question 35.
What do the figures on the right side of a fractional scale indicate?
Ground distance.

Question 36.
Which scale is represented only in graphs?
Graphical scale.

Question 37.
How many types of graphical scale are there?
3 types.

Question 38.
What type of scale is a vernier scale?
Graphical scale.

Question 39.
Name the instrument that is used to measure air pressure.
Barometer.

Question 40.
What is the circumference of the equator?
40,000km.

Question 41.
1 inch is equal to how many cm ?
2.54cm

Question 42.
When a map is reduced in size, how does its scale change?
It is enlarged.

Question 43.
What is the book containing different types of maps called?
Atlas.

Question 44.
Which organisation publishes topographical maps of India?
Survey of India.

Question 45.
Maps can be classified into how many types, based on data, theme or information?
Two types.

Question 46.
How many types of maps are there, based on scale?
Three types.

Question 47.
Name the type of map which depicts the quantity of any geographical feature.
Quantitative map.

Question 48.
1km is equal to how many miles?
0.6214 mile.

Question 49.
An atlas or a globe is drawn using what type of maps?
Small scale maps.

Question 50.
Name the person who first gave the idea of a rectangular earth.
Herodotus.

Short Questions and Answers : (2 marks for each question)

Question 1.
What is map?
A map is a graphic representation of the features on the earth’s surface. It is drawn on flat paper using a specific scale, and with internationally accepted signs and symbols.

Question 2.
How were maps made in the ancient times?
The maps drawn by the Eskimos, Red Indians and the inhabitants of Marshall Island are considered to be the most ancient by archaeologists. They made maps by tying scales of fishes and shells of molluscs to slender structures using palm leaves.

Question 3.
What is meant by map scale?
A map scale is the ratio of the distance between two points, i.e., map distance and ground distance.
Example: 1cm to 500m.

Question 4.
Based on scale, how many types of map are there and what are they?
On the basis of scale, maps are of three types- small scale map, medium scale map and large scale map.

Question 5.
What are the advantages of a small scale map?
The advantages of a small scale map are as follows-

• In small scale maps, the area shown is larger.
• The whole world, or parts of it, can be shown on a single piece of paper.

Question 6.
What are the advantages of a large scale map?
The advantages of a large scale map are as follows-

• A small area can be shown in greater detail.
• Different features can be marked on the map using internationally accepted symbols.

Question 7.
Where was directions first used while drawing a map?
Directions were first used in Babylon while drawing a map. The Babylonians first used the directions east, west, north and south.

Question 8.
What are the main components used for drawing a map?
The main components used for drawing a map are scale, projection, a plane surface, subject or theme, north arrow, drawing of boundary lines.

Question 9.
What is a fractional scale?
The ratio of the distance between two points on a map and the distance between those points on the ground is called fractional scale. For example, 1:3000 indicates that 1 unit on the map is equal to 3000 units on the earth’s surface.

Question 10.
What is a blueprint?
The plan of construction of a house, market, town, etc., drawn beforehand using a specific scale, is called a blueprint. The scales of a blueprint are usually 1: 500, 1: 1250,1 inch to 8 feet, etc.

Question 11.
What type of a map is a topographical map?
A topographical map is a medium scale map. The scale ranges between 1:50000 and 1: 10000000.

Question 12.
What is a cadastral map?
A map that shows the shape of plots of land, the areas and boundaries along with specific ‘dag’ numbers in a village, drawn to particular scale, is known as a cadastral map. The scale of a cadastral map is usually 16 inches to 1 mile.

Question 13.
What is the use of a cadastral map?
Cadastral maps are used by land revenue offices for collection of land revenue. These maps are also used for drawing land use maps.

Question 14.
Based on their purpose, maps can be divided into how many types?
Maps can be of two types – general map (e.g., map of India and its neighbouring countries) and special map (e.g., map of roadways of an area).

Question 15.
What is a quantitative map?
A quantitative map is a map that gives a statistical representation of the various elements in a geographical region. For example, population density map of India.

Question 16.
What is a thematic map?
A map that represents both natural and cultural factors of a region is known as a thematic map. For example, a weather map.

Question 17.
What is a physical map?
A map that shows physical features, such as relief, rivers, etc., is known as a physical map.

Question 18.
What is a cultural map?
A map that represents cultural features, such as religion, language, distribution of population, etc., is known as a cultural map.

Question 19.
On the basis of representation, how many types of scales are there and what are they?
There are 3 types of scale-

• statement scale,
• representative fraction scale
• geographical scale.

Question 20.
What is a statement scale?
In a statement scale, the scale of a map is written in the form of a sentence.
For example, 1cm to 2km, where 1cm on the map is equivalent to 2km on the ground.

Question 21.
What are the advantages of a statement scale?
The advantages of statement scale are as follows-

• It can be expressed easily.
• Calculations can be avoided and graphical representation is not necessary as well.

Question 22.
What are the advantages of a fractional scale?
The advantages of a fractional scale are as follows-

• This is a unitless scale, hence the scale can be changed easily.
• This scale can be easily converted to a statement scale or a linear scale.

Question 23.
What is a graphical scale?
When the relation of the map distance between two points and the actual distance between those two is shown with the help of a drawing, it is known as a graphical scale.

Question 24.
What is a linear scale?
A linear scale refers to a straight line that is used to measure directly the distance between two points on the map and the actual ground distance between those two points on the ground. There are two divisions on this scale-primary and secondary.

Question 25.
What are the advantages of a linear scale?
The advantages of a linear scale are as follows –

• It is easy to understand since it is depicted as a straight line.
• If the map is enlarged or reduced, the scale can also be changed accordingly with ease.

Question 26.
What is a comparative scale?
Measurements in two different units can be compared in a comparative scale. In this case, the primary and secondary parts have the same value, but they have different units. For example, 10 km and 10 miles.

Question 27.
What is a diagonal scale?
A scale where two sets of lines cross each other obliquely, forming grids, which provides accurate measurements for smaller units which cannot be obtained generally, is known as a diagonal scale.

Question 28.
What is a vernier scale?
In a vernier scale, a smaller scale is attached to the main scale, which is movable and can be used to obtain small fractional measurements accurately. It indicates the measurement that lies between two marks on the main scale.

Question 29.
What is a reduced map?
When a map is depicted in a smaller form, it is known as a reduced map. In this case, the scale of the map gets enlarged.

Question 30.
What is an enlarged map?
When a map is depicted in a larger form, it is known as an enlarged map. In this case, the scale of the map gets reduced.

Question 31.
What is the importance of scale in a map?
A scale is of vital importance in the drawing of a map. A map is a two-dimensional representation of the world or any part of it, and this representation can be made accurately with the use of a scale.

Question 32.
What are the disadvantages of a fractional scale?
The disadvantages of a fractional scale are as follows-

• It is difficult for amateur readers to comprehend this scale.
• If a map is reduced or enlarged, the scale has to be made afresh.

Question 33.
What are the uses of scale?
Some of the various uses of a scale are as follows–

• It is used to enlarge or reduce a map as necessary, to measure the altitude of a point on the earth’s surface, to calculate the area of a region, and represent the three dimensional world on a two-dimensional plane (piece of paper).
• It is used for surveys, carrying out geographical researches, and even in the defence sector of the country.

Question 34.
Name the scale that is used in the atlas or the globe.
Small scale maps are used for drawing in the atlas or the globe. Details of a particular region cannot be shown accurately in these maps.

Question 35.
What is a weather map?
A weather map shows the components of the weather of a particular place, such as temperature, humidity, rainfall, air pressure, cloudiness, etc. Weather forecasts can be made based on these maps.

Question 36.
What do you understand by a political map?
A political map shows the location of a country, its boundaries, states, capitals, location of administrative centres, etc. The political and administrative structure of any country or region can be observed from such a map.

Question 37.
What are primary and secondary divisions on a linear scale?
When a straight line of a particular length is divided into a specific number of parts, which are equal in length, each of those divisions is known as a primary division. If these divisions are further divided into smaller parts, those are known secondary divisions.

Question 38.
What is a relief map?
A map that depicts the altitude or depth of different regions on the earth’s surface, and gives a representation of hills, mountains, plateaus and plains, is known as a relief map. Contour lines are generally used to depict the relief features in these maps.

Question 39.
What is the importance of symbols in a map?
All the features of a particular geographical region cannot be shown on a map. Hence, only the necessary features (according to the purpose of the map) are shown on it with the help of symbols. These symbols are accepted universally.

Short Questions and Answers : (3 marks for each question)

Question 1.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of a statement scale?
A statement scale has various advantages and disadvantages.

• It is a simple scale, and can be used easily for interpreting maps.
• As it is written in the form of a statement, there is no need of drawing.
• Complex mathematical calculations are not required in this scale.

Disadvantages: Some of the disadvantages of a statement scale are-

• Only the person who knows the language in which the scale is written will be able to comprehend it.
• Changing the units of measurement is difficult in this system, and is a time consuming process.
• If the map is enlarged or reduced, the scale has to be calculated again.

Question 2.
Mention the advantages and disadvantages of a linear scale.
A linear scale has its own set of advantages and disadvantages.

• This scale is very easy to understand as the calculations are not complex.
• In case of enlargement or reduction of the map, the linear scale gets reduced or enlarged proportionately. Thus, the map distance and the ground distance remain the same.
• The area of a map can be easily determined with the help of this scale.
• A short distance on a map can also be measured accurately through this scale.

• Calculations required for drawing this scale is very complex.
• Designing the scale along with headings to make it presentable is a laborious and time consuming process.

Question 3.
What are the different types of quantitative maps?
There are various types of quantitative maps-
1. Isoline maps: The maps where lines are drawn joining different places having same values (of air pressure, rainfall, etc.) are known as isoline maps. These maps can be of various types-

• isobar
• isothermal
• isohyet
• isohaline
• isohel
• contour line map, etc

2. Symbolic maps or maps with conventional signs: Several internationally accepted signs and symbols are used to draw these maps. These can be of various types-

• dot distribution maps,
• circle maps,
• wheel maps,
• proportional symbol maps, etc.

3. Geometric maps: These maps include:

• spherical maps,
• choropleth maps,
• flow maps, etc.

Question 4.
What is the importance of a map?
A map is a drawing that is done in accordance with a particular scale and a specific projection using lines, colours, symbols, etc., from which many geographical data can be obtained. The importance of a map is unparalleled.

Universality: A map is used not only by a geographer, but also by people from various other professions. Thus it has a universal value.

Main tool of geographers: A map is the main tool of a geographer. An idea about the geographical aspects of any region of the world can be made using maps.

Administrative work: A map is necessary for several administrative purposes. For example, a cadastral map is of utmost importance in the collection of land revenue and taxes.

Defence purposes: Military personnel plan their routes in any region using the map of that part. Topographical maps play a major role in this respect.

Besides, maps are of great use to tourists visiting unknown areas.

Question 5.
Name the topographical maps included in different series.
The various topographical maps included in different series are-
International series map: These maps are drawn according to international treaties. The scale of the maps of this series is 1: 100000. An area spanning over 4° latitude and 4° longitude is covered in this map.

South Asian series: Iran, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, etc., are included in this series. The scale used in the series is 1: 200000. It spans over an area of 8° latitude and 12° longitude.

Series of India and her neighbouring countries: These maps are drawn to a scale of 1: 1000000. An area spanning over 4° latitude and 4° longitude is covered in this map.

4. Map of the Survey of India department: For the ease of conducting surveys, the Survey of India department has divided the Indian subcontinent from 44° East to 104° East and 4° North to 40° North into 4°×4° grids.

Question 6.
How is the R.F. determined in the statement scale?
When a scale in a map is expressed as a statement, it is known as a statement scale. This is the easiest way of writing a scale. A statement scale can be converted into R.F. scale in two ways.

1. Determination of R.F. by formula:
$$\text { R.F. }=\frac{\text { Map Distance }}{\text { Ground Distance }}$$
For example, if 16 inches on the map is equal to 1 mile on the ground, then
$$\text { R.F. }=\frac{16 \text { inches }}{63360 \text { inches }}[1 \text { mile }=63360] =\frac{1}{3960}$$
Therefore, the R.F. of the map =1: 3960.

2. Determination of R.F. by unitary method: If a distance of 10km on the ground is represented by 1cm on the map, the R.F. of that map will be,
1cm on map =10km on ground
or, 1cm on map=10×100000cm
= 1000000 cm
Therefore, the R.F. of the map =1: 1000000.

Question 7.
What is a political map? Mention some of its characteristics.
A map that depicts districts, subdivisions, boundaries and important places of states and countries is known as a political map. The political map of every district depicts its subdivisions, CD Block, municipal towns, important offices, etc.

Characteristics: Some of its characteristics are-

• Different administrative blocks are demarcated using lines and several symbols.
• The bordering/neighbouring countries, states, districts are all shown in this map.
• An idea about the political and administrative conditions can be made from this map.
• This type of map is presentable.

Question 8.
How can statement scale be determined from the R.F.?
Statement scale can be obtained from the R.F. in the given method-
If the R.F. a map is 1: 500000, the statement scale will be-
Distance of 1cm on the map =500000cm on the ground
or, 1cm on the map =$$\frac{500000}{100000}$$ = 5km on the ground.
Therefore, the statement scale is 1cm to 5km.

Question 9.
What do you mean by a globe? Discuss its importance.
A globe is a small model or representation of the earth. It is of much importance to geographers as well as people in other professions.

Importance:

• An overall picture of the whole world can be obtained from a globe.
• An idea about the concept of scales can be made by observing a globe.
• An idea about the exact locations of oceans, seas and continents can be made from a globe.
• The spinning of the globe gives an idea about the rotation of the earth.

Question 10.
A railway line has been measured to be 12.6cm in length in a topographical map. The actual length of that railway line is 31.5km. What is the R.F. of the map?
Solution: A distance of 12.6cm on the topographical map =31.5km on the ground
or, 12.6cm on the map =31.5 × 100000cm on the ground.
Therefore, 1cm on the map =$$\frac{31.5 \times 100000}{12.6}=250000cm$$ on the ground.

Write the differences between the following –

Question 1.
Globe and Map
The differences between a globe and a map are as follows-

 Points of difference Globe Map 1. Nature It is a three-dimensional representa­tion of the world. It is a two-dimensional representa­tion of the world or a part of it. 2. Determination of distance Determining the distance between two points is difficult on a globe. Determination of the distance between two points is relatively easy on a map. 3. Uses It is less useful than a map. It is more useful than a globe.

Question 2.
Small Scale map and Large Scale map
The differences between a small scale and a large scale map are as follows:

 Points of difference Small Scale Map Large Scale Map 1. Concept A large area is depicted in a smaller form on paper in this type of map. A small area is depicted in a larger form on paper in this type of map. 2. Scale The ratio of the scale is small, for example, 1: 1000000. The ratio of the scale is large, for example, 1: 4000 3. Data obtained Less details are shown in this type of map, for example, a wall map. More details are shown in this type of map, for example, a cadastral map.

Question 3.
Qualitative map and Quantitative map
The differences between a qualitative and a quantitative map are as follows:

 Points of difference Qualitative Map Quantitative Map 1. Concept Qualitative aspects of various geographical factors are expressed in these maps. Quantitative aspects of various geographical factors are expressed in these maps. 2. Measurement Geographical components cannot be measured in these maps. Geographical components can be measured properly in these maps. 3. Statistical use These maps are not useful for statistical purposes. These maps are of much use for statistical purposes.

Question 4.
Statement scale and Graphical scale
The differences between a statement scale and a graphical scale are as follows:

 Points of difference Statement Scale Graphical Scale 1. (Mature It is written in the form of a state­ment, for example, 1 cm to 5 km. This scale is represented by a graph. 2. Types It can be of no other type. It can be of 4 types-linear, comparative, diagonal, vernier. 3. Uses It is easy to use, but is used less frequently. Using this scale is difficult and laborious, but is used more frequently.

Question 5.
Fractional scale and Graphical scale
The differences between a fractional scale and a graphical scale are as follows:

 Points of difference Fractional Scale Graphical Scale 1. Concept Relation between map distance and ground distance shown as a fraction in this scale. Map scale represented by a graph in this scale. 2. Unit This scale has no fixed unit. This scale has a fixed unit. 3. Uses Values in any unit can be used in this scale, hence it is universal. This scale is more widely used; however, it is difficult to convert from one unit to another.

Question 6.
Statement scale and Fractional scale
The differences between a statement scale and a fractional scale are as follows:

 Points of difference Statement Seals Fractional Scale 1. Concept This scale is written in the form of a statement, for example, 1cm to 5 km. In this scale, the relation between map distance and ground distance is shown as a fraction, for example, R.F. 1:50000. 2. Unit Unit is used in this scale. This scale has no unit. 3. Uses It is less useful. It is more useful as compared to a statement scale.

Question 7.
Physical map and Cultural map
The differences between a physical map and a cultural map are as follows:

 Points of difference Physical Map Cultural Map 1. Concept This type of map shows the physical features of a geographical region. This type of map shows the cultural aspects of a particular region. 2. Matter Separate maps are drawn depicting each physical feature in this case. Different topics are depicted together in these maps. 3. Example Tectonic map, relief map, weather map, vegetation map, etc. Social, political, regional, land use maps, etc.

Question 8.
Topographical map and Cadastral map
The differences between a topographical map and a cadastral map are as follows:

 Points of difference Topographical Map Cadastral’Map. 1. Concept The distribution of physical and cultural aspects of a region is shown in this type of map. Data related to land use is represented in this type of map. 2. Scale These maps are drawn on medium or small scales. These maps are drawn only on a large scale. 3. Composition Physical and cultural aspects are shown using internationally accep­ted symbols in these maps. Lakes, fields, schools, etc., are shown on these maps. 4. Uses These maps are used in survey of resources and defence purposes. These maps are used for collection of land revenue and taxes.

Give reasons for the following:

Question 1.
Scales are of utmost importance in maps.
A scale is important in a map due to the following reasons-

• Measurement: A map can be reduced or enlarged using a scale. Distance between two points, area of a region, can also be calculated using a scale.
• Representation of the earth: The three dimensional world can easily be represented on a two-dimensional surface (paper) with the help of a scale.
• Other uses: Scales are vital in geographical researches, surveys, defence purposes, etc.

Question 2.
Detailed data cannot be shown on small scale maps.
Much details cannot be shown on small scale maps because-

• Use of symbols: Since a large area is depicted in a small space, it is not possible to mark each feature with a symbol. Hence it cannot depict all features in detail.
• Small space: Since it is made on a small space, it is not possible to show all the details of a large area.
• Complicated topics: Physical, cultural, economic features (thematic maps) cannot be shown on a small scale map, and therefore the interpretation of these complicated themes is not possible.

Question 3.
Topographical maps are of utmost importance to geographers.
A topographical map is of vital importance to geographers because-

• Determining the relationship between physical and cultural environment: The relationship between different physical and cultural aspects of the environment can be determined through these maps, and this knowledge is valuable for geographers.
• Nature of a region: Natural vegetation and relief (rivers, hills, plateaus, plains, etc.) of any area can be easily determined from these maps.
• Useful in developmental planning: The construction of roads, railways, etc., together with local and regional planning, is done based on topographical maps.

Long Questions and Answers : (5 marks for each question)

Question 1.
Give a brief account of the history of development of maps.
When the world or a part of it is represented on a flat piece of paper with a specific scale, universally accepted conventional signs and some basic principles, it is called a map.

The history is map-making is quite old-about 4000 years. It can be discussed as follows:
According to anthropologists, the maps drawn by the Eskimos, Red Indians, and Marshall Island dwellers are quite old. Charts were made on palm leaves that were attached to narrow frames and shells of snails or fish-bones were used.

Straight lines were drawn to denote the sea and curved lines to denote the waves approaching the island. The people of Babylon were the first to divide a circle into 360 parts. The four cardinal points north, south, east and west, were also first used by them while drawing maps.

The Greeks were experts in Mathematics and Astrology. They were responsible for drawing the lines of Equator, Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, North and South Poles on a spherical world. Eratosthenes was the most well-known person who could draw maps accurately. Herodotus (485BC- 425BC ) believed that the earth was round, comprising Asia, Europe and Libya. Ptolemy drew a map of the world as well as 26 regional maps published in his book ‘Geographia’.

Many sailors while exploring different parts of the world, drew maps of newly discovered lands. Columbus was most famous among them. Remassus II, the Egyptian Pharaoh, drew a map of his empire for the convenience of tax and revenue collection. The science of map-making (cartography) was thus initiated and it gained much importance at that time.

Question 2
What is a map? Classify the different types of maps.
A map is a graphic representation of the features of the earth’s surface as drawn on a flat paper according to a specific scale and on a specific map projection, using internationally accepted signs and symbols.

1. Classification of maps based on scale:

(1) Small scale maps: When a map is drawn in a small dimension on a piece of paper, representing a bigger land surface, a small scale is used. These are known as small-scale maps.

• As the scale is small, a bigger area can be represented on a smaller dimension on space on a piece of paper.
• The whole world on a part of it is represented on paper

• Various symbols are used to show different components on the map.
• Due to smaller space or dimension, details of the area cannot be shown.
Example: Wall map, international map, navigation maps, etc.

(2) Medium scale maps: When any large area is divided into smaller areas on a medium scale to represent on paper (i.e., map), it is called a medium scale map. Example to pographical maps.

(3) Large scale maps: When a small area is shown on a larger dimension, it is known as a large scale map.

2. Classification of maps based on utility:

• General map: When a map is easily used or understood by the common people, it is known as a general map. Example-district map of West Bengal.
• Special map: When a map is used for any specific purpose, it is known as a special map. Example-physical map of India.

3. Classification of maps based on information/data:

• Qualitative map: This map shows the qualitative aspect of any geographical feature.
• Quantitative map: This map shows the quantity-wise variation of geographical features, such as altitude, area, etc. Example-population density map of India, dots and sphere maps, etc.

4. Classification of maps based on topic/ theme:

• Physical map: This type of map shows the physical features of any area. Examplerelief map.
• Cultural map: When any cultural aspect is shown on a map, it is called a cultural map. Usually, the socio-economic or political aspects are depicted in such maps. Example-population density map.

Question 3.
Write a note on some of the important cartographers.
The Greek philosopher, Anaximander ( 610BC-546BC) was the first to draw a map of a human settlement according to scale. In his map, Greece was shown in the centre of Europe and the land portion of the world was surrounded by seas on all sides.

The Greek philosopher, Eratosthenes (276BC-194BC) is known as the ‘Father of Geography’. He was the pioneer in using lines of latitude and longitude on accurately drawn maps.

Hecataeus (550 BC – 476 BC) slightly modified the map drawn by Anaximander and drew it accurately with more descriptive details. This was a map showing Eurasia.

Herodotus ( 484BC- 425BC) is known as the ‘Father of History’. He believed that the area of land between the coastal areas of India and Spain was surrounded by seas and oceans. He divided the earth into Asia, Europe and Libya.

Several other scholars also gave importance to drawing maps. Among them, mention can be done of the Roman philosopher Strabo (64 BC -24 AD) and Claudius Ptolemy (90 AD – 168 AD). Ptolemy drew about 26 regional maps of different parts of the world.

In the later period, Chinese geographers and scientists drew maps on the basis of grids. Zhang Heng (78 AD – 139 AD), Fi Sui (224 AD – 271 AD), Chu Su Pin (1273 AD – 1337 AD), etc., were well-known for drawing maps. Fi Sul is known as the Father of Map Science’. He drew the rolitical map of China on a large scale in 276 AD.

In the middle ages, Al Idrisi (1099 AD – 1161 AD) tried to draw maps as well. In the later period, Columbus Magellan, James Cook and several others made huge improvements in the methods of map-making.

Question 4.
What is a thematic map? Classify thematic maps and describe each type.
A thematic map is based on the physical and cultural aspects of an area.
Classification: Thematic maps can be of two types-physical map and cultural map.

1. Physical map: This map shows the physical features like relief, climate, and so on, of any place. Physical maps can be of various types –

• Relief map: This map helps to identify the altitude, slope, rock types, etc. E.g., the hilly, plateau and plain regions of India can easily be identified from the relief map of India.
• Climatic map: This map is based on climatic features like air pressure, rainfall, wind, cloudiness, etc. E.g., from the rainfall map of india, we can have an idea of the areas receiving high and low rainfall.
• Vegetation map: The types of natural vegetation is shown on such a map.E.g., from the natural vegetation map of India, evergreen, deciduous, coniferous forests can be identified.
• Soil map: It is drawn on the basis of the characteristics of soil of a region.E.g., the soil map of India reveals that the Gangetic plain has silt, the Rajasthan region has sand and the Deccan Plateau region has black cotton soil.
• Others: Space related topics such as location of stars and planets and also rock types, drainage basins and other such features on the earth’s surface are shown on these maps.

2. Cultural map: The cultural aspects (like social, political, historical, economic, etc.) of a particular region are shown on such a map.

Question 5.
What is map scale? Classify map scales.

The ratio of distance between two points on a map and the actual ground distance between those two points is called map scale. For example, if the distance measured on the map is 1cm and that on the ground is 5km, the map scale will be 1cm = 5km.

1. Statement scale: When the distance between two points on a map and the corresponding distance between these two points on the actual ground is expressed in a descriptive manner, that is, in a statement form, it is called a statement scale. For example, 1cm =2 km. This means that 1cm distance on the map represents 2km on the ground.

2. Representative fraction scale: When the map distance and actual ground distance is expressed as a ratio, it is called a representative fraction scale. E.g., if in a map the scale is mentioned as 1: 4000, it implies that 1 unit distance on the map is equivalent to 4000 units distance on the actual ground.

3. Graphical scale or drawn scale: When the distance on the map and the corresponding distance on the actual ground is shown by drawing a line with measurements on it, it is called a graphical scale. Graphical scales can be further divided into four types-

(1) Linear scale: When the map distance and ground distance is represented by drawing a straight line with measurements on it, it is called a linear scale.

(2) Comparative scale: When two different units are represented at the same time with different measurements indicated on either side of a straight line, it is called a comparative scale.

(3) Vernier scale: In this scale, a small scale slides along a main scale, indicating the actual measurement that lies between two marks on the main scale. This scale can measure very small areas.

(4) Diagonal scale: When the primary divisions of a linear scale is converted into further subdivisions for accurate measurements, it is called a diagonal scale.

Question 6.
What are the uses and importance of maps?
A map is an important tool for geographers and its importance is immense.
Uses of maps:

• It is extremely valuable for the study of history, geography, tourism etc.
• Precise locations (exact latitude and longitude) can be determined from a map.
• Large scale maps are used if one wants to study a small part of any area intensively.
• Maps are very important for defence personnel.
• Changes in international and national boundaries are clearly demarcated on maps.
• Maps are used to show physical features and distribution of resources.
• Special maps (drawn on specific map projections) are used to determine the routes of planes and ships.
• Maps are used to teach History and Geography in classrooms.
• Maps are used to plan the development of any area and for a host of other purposes.

Importance of maps:

• Complex topics are easily comprehended by students with the help of maps.
• Maps are useful in giving an idea about and to analyse the physical and cultural features of any area.
• Maps are important for developmental planning of any region or local area.
• Maps are also valuable for governance and administrative purposes.
• Even a layman can read a map and analyse it to get a clear idea of any area as required.

Question 7.
What are the sub-divisions of small and large scale maps? Why are ‘mauza’ maps drawn?
Types of small scale maps:
1. Wall maps: Wall maps are drawn on a large sheet of paper showing different continents and countries.

2. Atlas or book of maps: Various maps based on different themes are drawn and published in the form of a book known as an atlas.

3. International maps: They are drawn on 1 unit =1 million unit scale.
Besides, maps related to aviation, navigational charts, etc., are also maps of this type.

Types of large scale maps:
1. Blueprint: They are made for the purpose of building houses, local area demarcation, planning cites, towns, etc.

2. ‘Mauza’ maps: These are drawn for the purpose of collecting land revenue by the governmental (Land Revenue and Survey Department) agencies.

3. Topographical maps: In this type of map, different physical features as well as cultural features are depicted using various conventional signs and symbols. These maps play an important role in planning the development of any area (local or regional).

Reasons for drawing ‘mauza’ maps: Any property or land division based on surveys, showing any city or village with details of houses, land or plot boundaries, agricultural land, grasslands and so on are drawn on these maps. These are also called cadastral maps. In India the Survey Department of the government publishes such maps for the purpose of collecting land revenue. These are large scale maps. in India, ‘mauza’ maps are usually drawn on a scale of 16 inches=1 mile.

Question 8.
What is a topographical map? Write a note on its characteristics and importance.
A topographical maps shows the physical features and cultural composition of an area using symbols.
The word ‘topography’ originated from the Greek words ‘topos’ meaning a place and ‘graphien’ meaning to write. Characteristics: The characteristic features of a topographical map are-

• It has a fixed index number.
• The R.F. is fixed at 1: 50,000.
• The latitude and longitude are extended equally.
• Specific colours and symbols are used in the maps.
• The physical and cultural features of an area are shown here.

Importance: Topographical maps are important for the following reasons-

• The physical and cultural features are shown together.
• The nature of the area can be known easily.
• This type of map is important for conservation of national resources.
• This type of map is important for the planning of regional development.

Question 9.
What are the uses and importance of scale in maps?
The word ‘scale’ means measurement.
When the distance between any two points on a map and the corresponding distance on the actual ground is expressed as a ratio, it is called map scale.

Uses of scale in maps:

• The actual size of any area on a map can easily be determined with the help of a scale.
• Use of scale is mandatory for drawing an accurate map.
• Any map can be reduced or enlarged accurately with the help of scale.
• The distance between any two points can be measured on a map in order to determine the actual distance on the ground with the help of scale.
• Land can be measured accurately using vernier scale.

Importance of scale:

• A map cannot be drawn and is incomplete without a scale.
• Scale is important for determining the length, width, etc., of any region.
• Scale is valuable in determining the cost of building or contracting anything by a planner or a designer.
• Vernier scale is important for making minute measurements.

Question 10
What is an open or unclassified map? What are its characteristics?
A map containing extensive geographical details of any particular area (small in size) to be used for developmental work and to be comprehended and used by the common people, is called an open/unclassified map. From a detailed map of this kind, a clear idea of any specific area can be obtained.

The Survey of India has therefore published quite a number of maps drawn on different scales and they are easily available to the common people. That is why they are called open/unclassified maps.

Characteristics:

• These maps are usually drawn on large scales. Usually 1: 250,000, 1: 50,000 and 1: 25,000 scales are used.
• These maps are unrestricted in nature and can be obtained easily.
• To prepare such maps, map projections used in the market are used.
• There are no grids on this type of map.
• Universal data are compiled in this map.
• World Geodetic Survey method is used for these maps since they contain temperature related data.

Question 11.
Which components are used for drawing a map? Give examples.
When the world or a part of it is represented on paper as a map, the following components are of vital importance-

• Scale: Any part of the earth’s surface can be shown on paper in a reduced or enlarged form with the help of specific scales.
• Map projection: The graticules (longitudes and latitudes) on which the map is drawn is known as map projection.
• Paper or flat surface: A paper or a flat surface on which the map is to be drawn is required.
• Choosing a subject or theme: Specific themes, subjects or topics have to be determined before drawing a map.
• Selecting alphabets: This has to be done for writing the heading, scale, north line, index or a key, etc.
• Indicating the north line: If the latitudes and longitudes are not shown on the map the north line has to be drawn to indicate the north direction by this sign ‘N’.
• Drawing boundaries: Different symbols for boundaries showing country, states, districts, coastal areas, etc., have to be chosen and marked on the map.

For example, in the fig. (given in next page) it can be observed that-

• The scale of the map is 1cm=50km (approximately).
• The latitudes 22°, 24°N, 26°N (every 2° apart) and 88° longitude are shown on the graticules drawn on the map.
• The map is drawn on a flat surface, i.e., on paper.
• The theme of the map is-‘Rivers of West Bengal’.
• ‘Rivers’ is written in big and bold letters on top of the map.
• symbol is used in the map to indicate the north direction.
• Different symbols are used to show the boundaries of a country, states and coastal areas.